Browse Primary Sources
Primary sources from world and global history, including images, objects, texts, and digitally-born materials – annotations by scholars contextualize sources.

Poverty Observed!: Journal of a Country Priest

Village priests served as community leaders in a variety of respects, including keeping a register of births, marriages, and deaths. One such curate, the abbé Lefeuvre, also included in his register impressions of life during the severe winter of 1709, which give a sense of the difficult and fragile lives of the poor in rural towns in the eighteenth century.

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"I Didn't Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier" [Song]

By 1915, Americans began debating the need for military and economic preparations for war. Strong opposition to "preparedness" came from isolationists, socialists, pacifists, many Protestant ministers, German Americans, and Irish Americans (who were hostile to Britain).

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The School Journal, 1907 - [Magazine]

Although early issues of the School Journal drew extensively on a British literary heritage and reinforced imperial values, even in its first year of publication by the New Zealand Department of Education (1907), there were stories, articles and poetry authored locally and written about the colonial heritage and environment.

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thumbnail of chart result of how often someone goes to church

Statistics on Catholicism in Poland after the fall of Communism

These figures show the fragility of Catholicism in Poland after the communist era. Whether questioned about matters of doctrine or lifestyle, large numbers of Poles agreed with the stated positions of the Roman Catholic Church. Discussing these figures will help students understand that the image of “Catholic Poland” is more complicated than a casual observer might assume.

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Warsaw Embassy Cable, Bronislaw Geremek Explains Next Steps Toward a Solidarity Government

Following the historic semi-free elections in Poland in June 1989, which resulted in a near total defeat of the Communist regime, Polish Communist and Solidarity leaders engaged in ongoing and significant negotiations in the hope of establishing stability in Poland.

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Czechoslovak Secret Police Memorandum, "Information Regarding the Situation in the CSSR"

As a result of the intensifying public demonstrations in the first half of 1989, the Czechoslovak Communist Party increased its surveillance and suppression of independent and opposition groups, particularly in anticipation of politically-charged anniversaries.

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Czechoslovak Secret Police Memorandum, "Information on the Security Situation . . "

This Secret Police (StB) memorandum from 21 August details the plans of independent and opposition groups to commemorate the politically-sensitive anniversary of the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion, and the police's "extraordinary security measures" to prevent the commemorations from taking place.

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U.S. Reaction to a New Prime Minister in Poland

In early June 1989, Poland held its first semi-free elections since the inception of Communist Party rule in the post-World War II era. The elections resulted in a solid defeat of Communism and a sound victory for the Solidarity opposition.

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Transcript of the SED Politburo Session held on 5 September 1989 East Germany

Hungary began dismantling the barbed wire along its border with Austria in May, 1989. Over the summer months, thousands of East Germans risked their lives crossing over the Hungarian-Austrian border before heading north to West Germany.

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Letter from GDR Ambassador to Hungary, Gerd Vehres, to Foreign Minister Osker Fischer

Hungary began dismantling the barbed wire along its border with Austria in May, 1989. Over the summer months, thousands of East Germans risked their lives crossing over the Hungarian-Austrian border before heading north to West Germany.

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