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Locate primary sources, including images, objects, media, and texts. Annotations by scholars contextualize sources.
Cecil Rhodes statue removal, Cape Town University, South Africa

Cecil Rhodes monument removal, Cape Town, South Africa

The bronze statue of a seated Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902), on the campus of the University of Cape Town (UCT), was sculpted by Marion Walgate, one of the first white female sculptors in South Africa.

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Cecil Rhodes monument, Cape Town University, South Africa

Cecil Rhodes monument, Cape Town, South Africa

The bronze statue of a seated Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902), on the campus of the University of Cape Town (UCT), was sculpted by Marion Walgate, one of the first white female sculptors in South Africa. Walgate had earlier made a bust of Rhodes, a mining magnate and arch advocate of British imperialism, for the colonial government of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).

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Removal of Christopher Columbus statue near the Casa Rosada, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Christopher Columbus monument removal, Buenos Aires, Argentina

In 2013, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner announced the Columbus Monument would be replaced with a statue of Juana Azurduy de Padilla, a mestiza guerrilla leader born in 1780 in a region that is now Bolivia. Azurduy commanded armies during Argentina's early nineteenth-century independence wars, but had been largely forgotten.

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Christopher Columbus statue near the Casa Rosada, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Christopher Columbus monument, Buenos Aires, Argentina

The Monument to Christopher Columbus (1451?-1506), located in a plaza in front of the Casa Rosada government palace, was inaugurated in 1921. It was a gift from the Italian-Argentinian community in response to a solicitation for proposals by a government commission in 1910 to commemorate independence from Spain, although the centennial emphasized Argentina’s European heritage.

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Removal of Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson monument, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia

Stonewall Jackson monument removal, Richmond, Virginia, United States

The Stonewall Jackson Monument in Richmond, Virginia, was erected in 1919 to honor Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson (1824-1863), a Confederate general. Jackson, a former instructor at the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), gained prominence, and his nickname, for leading a Confederate victory at the 1861 First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia. Jackson owned six slaves at the time of the war.

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Bronze monument of Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia

Stonewall Jackson monument, Richmond, Virginia, United States

The Stonewall Jackson Monument in Richmond, Virginia, was erected in 1919 to honor Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson (1824-1863), a Confederate general. Jackson, a former instructor at the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), gained prominence, and his nickname, for leading a Confederate victory at the 1861 First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia. Jackson owned six slaves at the time of the war.

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Excerpt from letter by Lady Mary Wortley

Travel writing by women can reveal a number of themes in world history. One useful example are the letters written by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1786) who worked as a missionary in Turkey.

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Excerpt from Travels in Africa

Imperialism is one of the most pertinent topics in relation to travel and exploration. By the end of the 19th century, the spread of European imperialism had made many areas of the world “safe” for women travelers. As a result the volume of women’s writing increased significantly, so there is a wide range of texts to choose from.

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Drawing of two men working to create a large timeline

Salisbury Crags

Before about 1800, most people in the Christian world assumed that the earth was just a few thousand years old. But growing interest in fossils and strange geological formations made some people think the earth must actually be much older.

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Geologic clock with events and time periods noting the formation of earth and development of life.

History of the Earth in a Cycle

Our sense of time has been extended into the deep past in the last two centuries or so, and particularly since the 1950s, when Willard Libby showed that you could use the breakdown of radioactive molecules such as Carbon-14 to date events thousands of years before there were any written documents.

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