Browse Primary Sources
Locate primary sources, including images, objects, media, and texts. Annotations by scholars contextualize sources.

Wooden Triptych

This small wooden piece was constructed as a triptych, with two side panels that can fold over the main panel. It displays religious imagery, with the Virgin Mary at the center. The time period is unclear. The other figures remain unidentified, but are likely religious figures or images of the individuals who commissioned the piece. This item was intended for personal devotion in the home.

... Read More »

Tomb of General Juan Lavalle

Argentina declared independence from Spain in 1816 and eventually achieved it after several years of fighting royalist forces. Juan Lavalle was born in Buenos Aires in 1797, and remained in Argentina for most of his life. He joined General San Martin to fight for independence across South America.

... Read More »

The Obelisk of Buenos Aires

Built 1936 to commemorate the anniversary of the founding of the city, the Obelisk stands in downtown Buenos Aires, Argentina. It stands 67.5 meters tall, made of concrete and stone. The nation of Argentina celebrates its independence day on July 9th. This monument is located in the historic heart of town, at the intersection of July 9th Avenue and Corrientes Avenue.

... Read More »

Remains of the Puerta de la Ciudadela

The city of Montevideo, Uruguay, once belonged to the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, under the control of the Spanish Crown. It was officially founded in 1724. Around this time, the government constructed a wall around the city. Such walls served important defensive purposes, especially for places like Montevideo, which directly bordered the sprawling Portuguese territory of Brazil.

... Read More »

Ottoman Reform Decree, 1856

The Imperial Reform Edict of Ottoman Sultan Abdulmejid I, appearing originally in 1856 and subsequently in this 1874 publication, promised equality of access to education, government appointments, military service, and administration of justice to all, regardless of religion, language, or race.

... Read More »
Document icon

Poem by Qiu Jin, Chinese feminist

While the discussion surrounding the Chinese practice of footbinding often focuses on the writings of western missionaries, the example of Qiu Jin, a Chinese feminist and poet, demonstrates that the practice was criticized by Chinese individuals as well. Qui Jin had her feet bound as a child and as an adult spoke out against the practice.

... Read More »

Remains of Christopher Colombus

In October of 1492, the Spanish monarchs sponsored a voyage led by Columbus and his crew, who intended to sail towards India. Instead, they set foot in the Americas for the first time. Over the next several years, Columbus made many trips back and forth between Spain and the Caribbean Islands.

... Read More »

Portrait of Manuel Mansilla

This painting depicts Manuel Mansilla, the Alguacil Mayor (sheriff) of the city of Buenos Aires. He held this position from 1795-1821, during a key transitional moment. When he began his tenure, the city belonged to the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, under Spanish rule. However, by 1821, the region was establishing its independence as the nation of Argentina.

... Read More »

Mausoleum of José de San Martín

In 1816, after more than two centuries of Spanish rule, the nation of Argentina declared its independence. One of the leaders of the independence movement was José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras, more commonly known as General San Martín. He fought in battles in Argentina, Peru, and Chile. The Argentine public has historically regarded him as a father of the independence movement.

... Read More »

Legislative Palace of Uruguay

The Legislative Palace of Montevideo, Uruguay, was built in the early twentieth century. Construction lasted from 1904 to 1925 under the supervision of Vittorio Meano and Gaetano Moretti. It is located in the Aguada barrio, or neighborhood, of the city. Since Montevideo is the capital of the nation of Uruguay, the Palace houses the major legislative bodies of the nation.

... Read More »

Pages