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Hagia Sophia Floor Plan
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Hagia Sophia Floor Plan

This is an architectural drawing of the Hagia Sophia’s floor plan.

Thumbnail image of the Hagia Sophia
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Hagia Sophia

This an image of the Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople. It was built in the early 6th century by the Emperor Justinian and stands today, almost 1,500 years later, despite earthquakes, wars, and revolutions.

Thumbnail image of the Hagia Sophia
Methods

Analyzing Objects

The modules in Methods present case studies that demonstrate how scholars interpret different kinds of historical evidence in world history.

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An Emblematical View of the Constitutions of England and France

Similar to the two engravings of trees, this engraving contrasts English order with French anarchy. On the left, a lion (representing England) sits at the foot of a chiseled rock, part of which is labeled "Unanimity." A crown appears over the rock; a unicorn lies behind it.

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Allegory of Truth

Female revolutionary figures stood for all kinds of qualities and virtues, in this case, "Truth." Women figures appeared so prominently in paintings and engravings because French nouns for the qualities and virtues were usually feminine (Truth = La Vérité).

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Ah! Monsignor!

Not uncommonly, revolutionary prints invoked excretory humor directed toward those priests who would not swear allegiance to the Revolution. Revolutionaries eliminated on their enemies; the latter might also receive enemas.

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Active Citizen/ Passive Citizen

This cartoon mocks the distinction between active and passive citizens. Many revolutionaries hated this difference, essentially dividing those with property from those without. The propertied (active) were the only ones who could participate in the political process.

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Act of Justice

Here Robespierre’s death is depicted as divine retribution, as in a classical myth.

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Abuses to Suppress

This print depicts the Third Estate—represented by the peasant at the rear of the chariot, the worker leading the horse, and the merchant driving—delivering to the National Assembly a petition listing "abuses" to be remedied.

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Abstention Rate in Napoleonic Plebiscites

All regions of France did not support Napoleon equally. His rule aroused most enthusiasm in the east (a prerevolutionary border region crucial in the Napoleonic wars) and the center of the country, least in the west, which had long provided a home to royalist counterrevolution.