A light colored, rectangular bead with small, stripe-like markings.

Shell Pendant or Bead from Ecuador

This pendant or bead was made from a shell and dates back to the 3rd millennium BCE. Found in Ecuador, it was likely made by the Valdivia culture, a people who lived on the western coast and mainly subsisted off fishing and farming and flourished between the years of 3500 BCE - 1500 BCE.

A clay figure with two heads and two female torsos, along with one set of arms and legs. The heads have cap-like hair and slightly detailed faces.

Ceramic Female Figure from Ecuador

This clay figure dates from the third millennium BCE and is evidence of the earliest known ceramic traditions of any ancient peoples in the Americas. This figure, and many others like it, are from the Valdivia culture of Ecuador.

The mummified remains of a child lay in a container. The child has a clay mask and red painted clay on their body.

Chinchorro Mummies

The Chinchorro mummies, named for the Chinchorro people of current-day Chile and Peru, are the world’s oldest known examples of intentional mummification. predating Egyptian examples by almost 2,000 years.

Three reddish-brown fragments of potter featuring a human face and geographic patterns.

Lapita Pottery from the Santa Cruz Islands

This pottery sherd dates from around 1000 BCE and is from the Lapita culture, the likely common ancestor of contemporary Polynesian cultures. This sherd was found in the Santa Cruz Islands, part of the Solomon Islands.

A tan colored stone in the shape of an animal with head at the top and a rounded end.

Zoomorphic Figure from Papua New Guinea

This stone figure from an unknown culture in ancient Oceania may represent an echidna, which is an egg-laying mammal that is related to the platypus.

A tan-colored stone figure loosely shaped like a bird with a head and beak and two protruding wings on the side. The figure has a flat bottom.

Bird Stone Figure from Papua New Guinea

This stone figure from ancient Oceania loosely shaped like a bird comes from an unknown ancient culture that lived in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

A brown-colored, stone figure loosely in the shape of a bird with a beak and two small wings.

Pestle Finial from Papua New Guinea

This image is of a pestle finial in the shape of a bird from an unknown culture in ancient Oceania. Pestles are a tool used for crushing or grinding, often used for cooking ingredients such as spices, and were likely also used with other stone mortars that have been found in the region.

A green background with counters on a counting board.

History of Pre-Modern Math

Before the widespread adoption of Arabic numerals, medieval and early modern Europeans added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided using a type of abacus known as a counting board and only afterwards recorded the results of their ca

A green background with counters on a counting board.

Adding and Subtracting with an Early Modern Counting Board

Before the rise of literacy rates, counting boards such as the one featured in the video were the most common way to perform arithmetic. After pen-and-paper arithmetic replaced counting boards, Arabic numerals also became dominant throughout Europe. 

A table with popular world development indicators for four Caribbean countries dating from 1972, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020.

Economic Diplomacy in the Caribbean Since the Second World War

Economic affairs are an essential part of world history and, even more so, in contemporary times after World War II, when globalization processes with higher levels of interdependency and proximity among individuals and countries are increasingly observed.