Browse Primary Sources
Locate primary sources, including images, objects, media, and texts. Annotations by scholars contextualize sources.
Izvestiia, “Old Way of Life,” March 8, 1930 thumbnail image

Women and Stalinism: Drawing, Old Way of Life

Articles and images published in Soviet newspapers on March 8, International Communist Woman’s Day, provide the most obvious examples of how women were used as symbols in a propaganda campaign. These texts and images were clearly intended to convey a certain message about the changing role of women in the Soviet system.

... Read More »

A Positive View?

This composition of the scene, in which a helpless Louis seems to be looking upward to heaven with his confessor, communicates humility. The executioners are relatively passive, leaving the King and confessor center stage. This reveals that in mortal death, the King had a chance to look better than his tormentors.

... Read More »

A Grateful France Proclaims Napoleon the First Emperor of the Frence

In this engraving, Roman and contemporary themes are combined to glorify the new emperor. The absence of any clear representation of revolutionary liberty shows Napoleon moving away from the events of the preceding decade.

... Read More »

A French Gentleman of The Court of Louis XVI

A sarcastic treatment from England of French manners that contrasts the weakness of the old regime with revolutionary arrogance. The engraver also seems to be pointing toward two entirely different views of masculinity.

... Read More »

A Foreign Tree

These painted engravings ridicule the unrest wrought by French revolutionaries by contrasting French subversion with British stability.

... Read More »

A Democrat, or Reason and Philosophy

This cartoon by the popular British caricaturist James Gillray depicts the British politician Charles James Fox as a sans–culotte. Wearing a cockade in his wig and a bandage on his forehead, the unshaven Fox raises his bloody left hand as he lifts his left leg to break wind. Notice his torn shirt, the bloody dagger in his belt, and the fact that he wears no pants.

... Read More »

20 June 1791, Anonymous Drawing

In this depiction of the King’s arrest, the Queen risks her body to save her son, the crown prince.

... Read More »

Day of 10 August 1792

This engraving gives a ground–eye view of the action; far from an orderly operation, the "day" appears chaotic and menacing, as the inspired people face what appear to be cannons being fired by royal soldiers. This romantic image would become the predominant view of this event.

... Read More »

"This is My Dear Son": Napoleon as Child of the Devil

Linking Napoleon with Hell represents a far cry from his own propaganda. German propaganda piece depicting Napoleon as the child of the Devil.

This source is a part of the The Napoleonic Experience teaching module.

... Read More »

"The Song of the End": The Whole World Now Chases Him

Where Napoleon was once the conqueror, the world now avenges itself. This sense of reversal, felt widely outside of France, characterized a number of the caricatures of Napoleon, and indeed of the entire Revolution.

This source is a part of the The Napoleonic Experience teaching module.

... Read More »

Pages