Browse Primary Sources
Locate primary sources, including images, objects, media, and texts. Annotations by scholars contextualize sources.
Thumbnail of drawing captive Africans

Slave Coffle, Central Africa, 1861

This image shows children and adults making their way from the African interior to the coast in a slave coffle. While some may think that children were given special treatment because of their age, and some may have, this image suggests that this was not always the case.

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Thumbnail of child nutrition chart

Millennium Development Goals: Child Malnutrition 2006

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals related to poverty, education, gender equality, health, environmental sustainability and development set in the year 2000 at the UN Millennium Summit, and adopted by 189 nations.

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Thumbnail of gender parity chart

Millennium Development Goals: Gender Parity in Basic Education 2007

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals related to poverty, education, gender equality, health, environmental sustainability and development set in the year 2000 at the UN Millennium Summit, and adopted by 189 nations.

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Thumbnail of gender parity in tertiary education chart

Millennium Development Goals: Gender Parity in Higher Education 2007

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals related to poverty, education, gender equality, health, environmental sustainability and development set in the year 2000 at the UN Millennium Summit, and adopted by 189 nations.

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Thumbnail of primary school enrollment chart

Millennium Development Goals: Primary School Enrollment 2009

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals related to poverty, education, gender equality, health, environmental sustainability and development set in the year 2000 at the UN Millennium Summit, and adopted by 189 nations.

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Thumbnail of chart showing school enrollment

Millennium Development Goals: Primary School Enrollment 2009

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals related to poverty, education, gender equality, health, environmental sustainability and development set in the year 2000 at the UN Millennium Summit, and adopted by 189 nations.

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Thumbnail of chart on orphans

UNICEF Data on Orphans by Region to 2010

The definition of an orphan for statistical purposes is a child under 18 years old who has lost one or both parents. A single orphan is a child who has lost one parent, a double orphan is a child who lost both parents. A maternal orphan is a child whose mother died, while a paternal orphan has lost the father.

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Thumbnail of African toy

Johannesburg Recycled Material Toys

The photograph shows boys in Diepsloot Township, Johannesburg, South Africa, and one of the rolling toy creations with which the photo shows them playing. These elaborately designed constructions are made from discarded aluminum or steel, soft drink cans, plastic processed food tubs, and water bottles. The material that holds them together is ordinary wire such as coat-hangers.

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Thumbnail of Ugandan billboard

Street Children Billboard, Uganda

The billboard shown in the two photographs carries a slogan used widely by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to promote public interest in the plight of abandoned, orphaned and runaway children living on the streets in cities of Africa, Asia, the Americas and elsewhere.

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Thumbnail of chart of world child labour

Child Labor Statistics by World Region

The chart shows summative data for several world regions and types of countries on the subject of child labor. The figures refer to the percentage of children 5-14 years of age involved in child labor, meaning as a percentage of the total population of children in a country or region.

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