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Locate primary sources, including images, objects, media, and texts. Annotations by scholars contextualize sources.
American Indian Girls Playing with Dolls image thumbnail

American Indian Girls Playing with Dolls

In this photograph, taken near the turn of the 20th century, American Indian girls in the southwestern United States are learning through play how to be mothers and keepers of the home. In this photograph, a Hopi girl in Arizona follows her mother's example; she wraps her baby doll in a blanket and carries her on her back, in contrast to the Anglo girl who holds her doll in her arms.

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Blocksom's School in Sussex County in Rural Delaware image thumbnail

Blocksom’s School

These two photographs show before and after pictures of Blocksom's School in Sussex County in rural Delaware. The first photo (taken in 1917) shows the pupils standing outside the original one-room schoolhouse made of wood.

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Student Letter to Pierre DuPont

Thelma Norwood, a 7th-grade student in Nassau, Delaware, wrote this letter in 1925. The school was segregated, or used only by African Americans, while separate schools were maintained for white students.

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Electric Power and Light Company Ad of boy selling lemonade thumbnail image

The Lemonade Stand

The lemonade stand is a widely used and recognized symbol of capitalism and in particular entrepreneurship. The selling of lemonade on the streets of New York can be traced back to when a New York youngster sold it to thirsty street car riders over 130 years ago. Its connection to youthful entrepreneurship has endured.

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Christmas Poem, Pima Indian School image thumbnail

Christmas Poem, Pima Indian School

The poem and photographic collage is the work of students at the Pima Indian School boarding school near Phoenix, Arizona, and is part of an album probably owned by the school matron. The school was one of some 150 institutions for Indian wards of the U.S. Government.

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Barbie Turns 21 magazine article

Barbie Turns 21

Barbie—who is today the most famous doll in the world—was based on Lilli, a sexy and sassy German doll first produced in 1955. Co-founder of Mattel Inc., Ruth Hander transformed the Teutonic doll from floozy to fashion queen for American girls like her daughter, Barbara, after whom the doll was named.

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Schoolchildren at Minidoka Incarceration Camp image thumbnail

Schoolchildren at Minidoka Incarceration Camp

Minidoka incarceration camp, near Twin Falls in southern Idaho, was one of 10 incarceration camps run by the War Relocation Authority (WRA) that held citizens and non-citizens of Japanese descent during World War II. The 33,000 acres of arid desert were dominated by sagebrush, and residents contended with a harsh climate and poor living conditions.

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Margaret Mead standing between two Samoan girls image thumbnail

Margaret Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa

In 1928, Martha Mead published Coming of Age in Samoa, an anthropological work based on field work she had conducted on female adolescents in Samoa. In Mead's book that became a best seller and unleashed a storm of controversy, she argued that it was cultural factors rather than biological forces that caused adolescents to experience emotional and psychological stress.

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Thanksgiving Newspaper Article thumbnail image

Thanksgiving Newspaper Article

Thanksgiving was not uniformly celebrated until major efforts to nationalize it were undertaken late in the nineteenth century. Despite Lincoln's proclamation that made Thanksgiving a national holiday during the Civil War, few Americans celebrated the holiday like middle-class Protestants in New England and the Mid-Atlantic states did.

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Creeping Baby Doll Patent thumbnail image

Creeping Baby Doll Patent

Strongly influencing the invention of Robert J. Clay's mechanized "Creeping Baby Doll" in 1871, were changing notions of childhood that fostered children's development.

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