Modern nation-states and transnational mobility – the movement of people, things, and ideas across borders – are two important subjects for historians to study. They are two fundamental features of the modern world and have influenced one another constantly over the last several centuries.
This document is a portion of a letter, written by José de la Cruz Zenteno, the Chilean consul in Mendoza, Argentina to the Minister of Foreign Relations in Chile is from the National Archive of Chile. Mendoza was and is an Argentinian province that borders Chile.
Found in the National Archive of Chile, this is a letter from José de la Cruz Zenteno, the Chilean consul in Mendoza, Argentina to the Minister of Foreign Relations in Chile. Mendoza was and is a province that borders Chile.
The Brazilian intellectual Paulo Duarte wrote Tracy Kittredge of the Social Science Division of the Rockefeller Foundation in 1941.
This painting is a view of the Marienbosch coffee plantation along the banks of the Commewijne River in the Dutch colony of Surinam (present-day Suriname). Alongside coffee, the plantation also produced cotton and cocoa. The artist, Willem de Klerk, never visited Surinam.
This painting, entitled “Contraste,” or Contrast, originates in Montevideo, Uruguay. The artist behind the work is Joaquín Torres García (1874–1949), whose downtown Montevideo home has been converted into a museum dedicated to the artist.
This religious painting belongs to the extensive works of Spanish painter Francsico de Goya (1746–1828). Although he grew up in Zaragoza, he trained as an artist in Madrid. There he completed much of his works, even becoming the official portrait painter for the monarchy.
Located in the capital city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, this convent is one of the oldest religious structures in the region. The current structure was built in 1780, during the final decades of Portuguese rule in the area.
This painting from 1922 depicts a bullfight in a crowded arena of Montevideo, Uruguay. Scenes of these types of public events (also including circus and horse shows) were a favorite subject for the artist, Pedro Figari (1861-1938).