Excerpts from the Treaty of Logg's Town (1752)
As French and British powers jostled for dominance in the Ohio Country, both courted the Six Nations and their allies. The Six Nations held sway and power over mass amounts of territory—territory that French and British interests wished to control. British colonies had already attempted to secure much land from the Six Nations through treaties. The Treaty of Lancaster (1744) was one such acquisition. Per the treaty terms, the colony of Virginia gained access to lands across the Appalachian Mountains held by the Six Nations and their tributaries. However, colonial and imperial British officials were all too aware of the friction caused by the wave of colonization released by the Treaty of Lancaster, as well as the threat of Indian defection to the French in the same region. As such, Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia organized a treaty council to be held at Logg’s town with representatives of the Six Nations. This council was meant to smooth ruffled indigenous feathers with gifts, as well as secure the Six Nations’ confirmation of the Treaty of Lancaster and their promise not to side with the French. However, the Half-King Tanacharison, the main representative of the Six Nations at the council, delivered a tactical noncommittal to the terms of the Treaty of Lancaster as well as secured English promises to protect Indians in the Ohio Country in a show of talented diplomatic maneuvering.
This source is a part of the Treaties between the Iroquois Confederacy and English Colonies in the 18th Century teaching module.
Sunday, May the 31st.
They set off with the Canoes and arriv'd at Loggs Town, where they were saluted by the Fireing of small Arms, both from the Indians and English Traders residing there, and the Commissioners were met by the Chiefs of the Indians on the Shore and welcomed.
Monday, June the 1st…
Sometime after all being met in the Council House, Mr. George Croghan by Direction of the Governor of Pennsylvania, made a Speech to the Indians, letting them know that it was his Desire they shou'd receive their Brethren of Virginia kindly, and presented them with a String of Wampum.
The Commissioners then spoke as followeth:…
Now, Brethren, we are to acquaint . you, that we are sent hither, by the King of Great Britain, our Father, who, not forgetting his Children on this Side the great Waters, has ordered us to deliver you a large Parcel of Goods in his Name, which we have brought with us. But as we understand you have sent for some of your Chiefs, whom you shortly expect. we will wait with Patience till they come, and then faithfully deliver you the Good & open our Hearts to you. In Assurance of hich we present you with this String of Warnpum…
On Thursday, June the 4th, Thonariss [Tanacharison], called by the English the half King with a Sachim deputed by the Onondago Council, and others, came down the River with English Colours flying, to Loggs Town, and the following Days they were employed in their own Business till the 10th, when a Council was appointed for treating with the Commissioners of Virginia, & the Present was set out before the Door where they lodged, Arbours being made for the Council to sit round about. All being met, the Commissioners, addressing themselves to the Indians, said:…
Brethren, at the Treaty of Lancaster, in the Year 1744, between the Government of Virginia, Maryland, & Pensylvania. you made a Deed recognising the King's Right to all the Lands in Virginia, as far as it was then peopled, or hereafter should be peopled, or bounded by the King, our Father, for which you receiv'd the Consideration agreed on. At the same Time Conasetego desired that the Commissioners wou'd recommend you for the King's further Favour, when the Settlements shou'd encrease much further back. This the Commissioners promised, and confirm'd it by a writing under their Hands & Seals. In Consequence of which Promise, a Present was sent you from the King by Conrad Wieser, which Mr. Wieser since informed us that he delivered you, at a Council held here in the Year 1748. Now the King, our Father, to show the Love he bears to Justice, as well as his Affection to his Children, has sent a large Present of Goods, to be divided among you and your Allies, which is here ready to be deliver'd to you, and we desire that you will confirm the Treaty of Lancaster. Brethren, it is the Design of the King, our Father, at present, to make a Settlement of British Subjects on the South East Side of Ohio, that we may be united as one People, by the strongest Ties of Neighbourhood as well as Friendship, & by these Means be able to withstand the Insults of our Enemies, be they of what Kind soever.
From such a Settlement greater Advantages will arise to you, than you can at present conceive, our People will be able to supply you with Goods much Cheaper than can at this Time be afforded; they will be a ready Help in Case you shou'd be attacked, and some good Men among them will be appointed, with Authority to punish & restrain the many Injuries & Abuses too frequently committed here, by disorderly white People.
Brethren, be assur'd that the King, our Father, by purchasing your Lands, had never any Intention of takeing them from you, but that we might live together as one People, & keep them from the French, who wou'd be bad Neighbours.
He is not like the French King, who calls himself your Father, & endeavoured about three Years ago with an armed Force to take Possession of your Country, by setting up Inscriptions on Trees, and at the Mouths of Creeks on this River, by which he claims the Lands, tho' at the Time of their Coming & for many Years before, a Number of your Brethren, the English, were residing in this Town, & at several other Places on this River…
We desire for the future that you will observe the Treaty of Lancaster, and whenever your people travel through Virginia, that they will take such passes as are directed by that Treaty. By these passes, signed by Magistrates, the Men will be known, which will be some restraint on them as to their behaviour. It will be proper, also, that a man of prudence & discretion should head such a party that one among them, if possible, should speak English, and that by no means any French or french Indians be suffered to go with them…
The Commissioners then spoke to the Allies of the Six Nations, who were present, having first advised with the half King, and being joined by him in the Speeches in the name of the Six Nations.
Brethren, the Delawares, we thank you for the kind reception you gave us when we came to Shenapins [Town], which we shall never forget. We advise and exhort you to beware of french Councils, & that you will adhere to a strict friendship with us, the Six Nations, and your Brethren who live towards the Sun setting, which will strengthen us all, and be a sure defence against our Enemies. To confirm you in this mind, we present you with this Belt of Wampum…
After the Speeches had been spoke, & interpreted ; The Commissioners, in his Majesty's Name, delivered the Present of Goods to the half King & the other Chiefs of the Indians, who thankfully received them, & appointed some of their Men to make a Division of them, which they did, without the least Noise or Disorder, on the Spot, among- the several Nations; whose representatives respectively took Charge of their Parts, to be subdivided when they carried them Home.
The half King then, with a ten rowed Belt of Wampum in his Hand…Then addressing himself to the Commissioners of Virginia, and all the Indians present, with a String of Wampum in his Hand, he spoke as follows:…
Then turning to the Delewars, he said, you went to the Windots & deliver'd them a Speech & a Belt of Wampum, to make a Peace between you and the Cherokees, & after you came back, you let your young Men go to War against the Cherokees, which was very wrong after you had delivered the Speech, which I myself, being present, heard.
I take the Hatchet from you ; you belong to me, & I think you are to be ruled by me, & I, joining with your. Brethren of Virginia, order you to go to war no more…
Thursday, June 11th…
Then the half King spoke as follows:
Brother the Governor of Virginia, You acquainted us yesterday with the King's Right to all Lands in Virginia as far as it is settled, & back from thence to the Sun setting, whenever he shall think fit to extend his Settlements. You produced a Copy of the Deed, made by the Onondago Council at the Treaty of Lancaster, & desired that your Brethren of Ohio might likewise confirm that Deed.
Brother, the Governor of Virginia, We are well acquainted that our chief Council, at the Treaty of Lancaster, confirmed a Deed to you for a Quantity of Land in Virginia which you have a Right to, & likewise our Brother Onas has a right to a Parcel of Land in Pensylvania. We are glad you have acquainted us with the Right to those Lands, & we assure you we are willing to confirm any Thing our Council has done in Regard to the Land, but we never understood, before you told us Yesterday, that the Lands then sold were to extend further to the Sun setting than the Hill on the other Side of the Allegany Hill, so that we can't give you a further Answer now.
Brother, you acquainted us yesterday that the French were a designing People, which we now. see & know that they design to cheat us out of our Lands ; you told us that the King of England designed to settle some Lands on the South East Side of Ohio, that it might be better in our Brethren's Power to help us, if we were in Need, than it is at Present at the great Distance they live from us ; we are sure the French design nothing else but Mischief, for they have struck our Friends, the Twightwees. We therefore desire our Brethren of Virginia may build a strong House, at the Fork of the Mohongalio, to keep such Goods, Powder, Lead & necessaries as shall be wanting, and as soon as you please…
This Evening the Commissioners had a private Conference with the half King, on the Subject of the strong House, for it had been alleged, that the Expression implied a Settlement of People, as well as an House. The Question being asked whether he meant it in that Sense or not, He answered in the
Saturday, June the 13th.
Thonarison, speaking to the Commissioners…Then, directing his Speech to the Governor of Virginia, he
Brother, we have heard what you said in Regard to the King's Design of making a S'ttlement of his People on the Waters of the River Ohio ; you likewise told us you had a Deed for those Lands signed by our Council at the Treaty of Lancaster ; we assure you of our Willingness to agree to what our Council does or has done, but we have not the full Power in our Hands here on Ohio.
We must acquaint our Council at Onondago of the Affair, and whatsoever they bid us do, we will do.
In Regard to our Request of Building a strong House at the Mouth of Mohongalio, you told us it wou'd require a Settlement to support it with provisions & necessaries. It is true, but we will take Care that there shall be no Scarcity of that Kind, untill we can give you a full Answer; Although in all our Wars we don't consider Provisions, for we live on one another ; but we know it is different with our Brethren, the
Gave three Strings of white Wampum.
The Commissioners having drawn an Instrument of writing for confirming the Deed made at Lancaster, & containing a Promise that the Indians wou'd not molest our Settlements on the South East Side of Ohio, desired Mr. Montour to confer with his Brethren, the other Sachems, in private, on the Subject, to urge die Necessity of such a Settlement & the great Advantage it wou'd be to them, as to their Trade or their Security.
On which they retir'd for half an Hour, & then return'd, & Mr. Montour said they were satisfied in the Matter & were willing to sign & seal the Writing, which was done & witnessed by the Gentlemen then present…
The Commissioners then opened the Road to Virginia with a Belt of Wampum, & the following Speech:
Brethren, we have travelled through a long & dark Way to meet you at this Council ; we have now compleated our Business with Pleasure & Satisfaction, both to you & us, & as we are now returning back, we do in the name of the great King, Your Father, as also in the Name of your Brother, the Governor of Virginia, remove all Obstacles out of the way, & make clear the Road that you may at any time send Messengers to us on any Occasion, and we shall always be ready to receive them kindly, and look upon you as our Brethren ; and in Token of our Sincerity of our Hearts, we present you with this Belt of Wampum.
Gave the Belt.
The Commissioners added:
Brethren, at the Treaty of Lancaster, the Commissioners informed you of a large House built among us for the educating of Indian Children, & desired that you would send some of Yours ; we now make you the same Offer, but if you think it too far to send your Children, we desire to know whether it wou'd be agreeable to you that Teachers shou'd be sent among' you…
To which the half King, after a short Pause, answered:
Brethren, we heard of the Offer which was made us at Lancaster, & we thank you for that which you make us now, but we can give you no Answer before we have consulted the Onondago Council about it.
A Copy of the Instrument of writing before mentioned.
Whereas, at the Treaty of Lancaster, in the County of Lancaster & Province of Pensylvania, held between the Government of Virginia & the six united Nations of Indians, in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred & seventy-four [sic., but forty-four is of cause meant] ; the Hon'ble Thomas
Lee and William Beverly, Esqrs., being Commissioners, a Deed recognizing & acknowledging the Right & Title of his Majesty our sovereign Lord, the King of great Britain, to all the Lands within the Colony of Virginia, as it was then or hereafter, might be peopled & bounded by his Majesty, our sovereign Lord, the King, his Heirs & Successors, was signed, sealed & delivered by the Sachems & Chiefs of the six united Nations, then present, as may more fully appear by the sd Deed, reference thereunto being had : We, Conogariera, Cheseago, Cownsagret, Enguisara, Togrondoaro, Thonorison, Sachems & Chiefs of the sd united Nations, now met in Council at Loggs Town, do hereby signify our Consent & Confirmation of said Deed in as full & ample a Manner as if the same was here recited. And whereas his Majesty has a present Design of making a Settlement or Settlements of British Subjects on the southern or eastern Parts of the River Ohio, called otherwise the Allagany. We in Council (Joshua Fry, Lunsford Lomax, & James Patron, being Commissioners on behalf of his Majesty) do give our consent thereto, & do further promise that the said Settlement or Settlements shall be unmolested by us, and that we will, as far as in our power, assist and Protect the British Subjects there inhabiting.
In Witness whereof we have hereunto put our hands and Seals this thirteenth day of June, in the Year of our Lord 1752.
The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 13, no. 2 (Oct. 1905), 143-174, https://archive.org/details/sim_virginia-magazine-of-history-and-biography_1905-10_13_2/mode/2up.