Rude Pravo, Central Committee Meeting
In 1978, one year after the creation of Charter '77, Vaclav Havel wrote his famous essay, "The Power of the Powerless." In it he argued that the countries of the East Bloc were under the rule of post-totalitarian regimes that appealed to popular desires for consumer goods, in order to secure domination over their populations. Indeed, these governments did make consumerist appeals. But they proved unable to make available and affordable the goods and lifestyles implicit in those appeals.
In this document we find an official Czechoslovak Communist comment on the state of consumer goods and living conditions in Czechoslovakia on the eve of the 1989 revolution. The speaker was Ladislav Adamec, Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia from October 1988 until December 1989.
This source is a part of the Everyday Life in Eastern Europe in the 1980s teaching module.
Report Submitted by Comrade Ladislav Adamec
Esteemed comrades, on instructions from the CPCZ Central Committee Presidium, I am submitting to
you the report on the fulfillment of the plan of social and economic development in the year 1988, on
provisions for the 1989 plan, and on the course of the restructuring of our economic mechanism.
The government proceeds from the conclusions adopted by the Seventh, Ninth, and Tenth CPCA Central
Committee sessions, which have become the political foundation of the federal government's
programmatic statement that was approved by the Federal Assembly on 8 November 1988. We are
summing up the knowledge acquired in our work during the first 2 months, and adopting a stand on
certain topical issues.
We realize the extraordinary significance of next year, when our entire party and society will be
embarking on intensive preparations for the 18th CPCZ Congress. In harmony with the demands voiced
by Comrade Jakes, CPCZ Central Committee general secretary in his opening statement, we declare our
responsibility for establishing the optimum conditions for mobilizing all creative forces of the workers
class, the cooperative farmers, and the intelligentsia. We want to make a vigorous contribution toward
creating an atmosphere of high responsibility for the accomplishment of tasks in every sector and toward
producing a creative approach to achieve a comprehensive approach to all political, economic, and
ideological tasks, to link immediate and longterm matters, and to combine organizational work and
consistent control. We share the responsibility for preparing a number of basic conceptual, strategic
documents for the 18th CPCZ Congress.
The federal government is resolved to honorably cope with the high demands set by the political and
economic reform, and to change the contents and style of its work as it goes along, while overcoming
outdated views and methods. We have no moral right to criticize others if we ourselves do not radically
change, if we do not provide a specific example on higher levels. In order to make a successful beginning,
we give priority to renewing the people's trust in state policy. Our citizens do not judge our work solely
according to what they themselves have experienced–they also ask about broader issues. They want to
know why we are undertaking such profound social changes. They are wondering what this will require
from them. They measure the principles of restructuring by applying the usual ideas on socialism and the
management of the national economy to them. They judge these principles by the living standards. For
the sake of reciprocal understanding, we must provide a truthful answer to all that is still unclear, as well
as truthfully reply to the unpleasant questions and doubting voices–without evasion or excuses, without
resorting to useless tactics and camouflage; we must reply in the spirit of supplying the public with
information, in the spirit of broad democratism. . . .
Putting Consumers' Interests First
Comrades, given the limited availability of resources and the conditions of economic imbalance, the 1989
Plan is aimed at further reinforcing the social orientation of production. Enterprises still place their own
interests above consumers' needs. They misuse their monopoly status to enforce onesided advantage for
themselves and to dictate their own terms. A socialist state must not tolerate a situation in which
consumers do not have equal rights with suppliers and must content themselves with any standard of
products and services. Our efforts to ensure, over a period of time, stability on the domestic market are
also connected with this. It is this stability to which we assign the number one position, subordinating the
other parts of the plan to it.
We know about the complaints about troublespots in supplies, the narrow product range, lack of variety,
and unwarranted price increases and we are dealing with them with all due earnestness. We do not
underestimate the objective causes of the emergence of the present complicated situation. We welcome
the initiative of those enterprises that are increasing their output for the benefit of the domestic market.
We do not regard the extraordinary steps which the government adopted in the recent past as a lasting and
comprehensive solution. We are facing the task of devising a wellthoughtout concept for the
development of the domestic market, which should comprise the expansion of production capacities,
including the utilization of parts of the defense industry.
Inexpensive, standard types of goods must always be available on the market in sufficient quantities. The
fulfillment of this task must be consistently monitored in the center, in regions, districts, and individual
localities. A balanced market does not depend just on the global decisions of central agencies. It must be
systematically and purposefully created at the local level as well; national committees must play a more
active role in this regard, while refraining from unnecessary administrative interference.
All crosssectional and branch agencies and their senior personnel must feel responsible before the party
and society for the state of supplies to the population and anticipate that conclusions will be drawn if they
fail to discharge their duties. We are confident that Comrade Ministers Josef Rab and Kazimir Nagy, in
charge of domestic trade and tourism in the republican governments, will make maximum use of the
possibilities provided by the new economic mechanism in order to boost the entrepreneurial spirit of
Supplies of staple foods are regular and free of major ups and downs. Our farmers and our food industry
rightly deserve thanks and credit for this. Despite our virtual selfreliance in this regard, we must not
succumb to a carefree attitude. The agrofood complex will operate in the conditions of the new economic
mechanism ahead of the other branches, from the beginning of 1989. Enterprises will not find it easy to
cope with the new conditions, especially those with a weaker economic base. At the same time, new
opportunities are opening up before them to take the initiative themselves in producing and expanding the
range of foodstuffs, entering into direct links with retailing organizations, and choosing efficient channels
for purchasing supplies and marketing their products. In the interest of greater variety, higher quality,
durability, better packaging, regularity of supplies, and permanent availability of products in cities and
rural areas, we support the demands for an accelerated development of the food industry.
The weakest element of the agrofood complex are its high costs, the inordinate degree to which the retail
prices of virtually all staple foods are subsidized from the state budget. The demand for efficienty
concerns this sector as well. Farmers have achieved high grain yields and a high growth rate in meat
production. The crucial thing is, however, to produce at substantially lower costs.
with the restructuring of the economic mechanism and with meeting the needs of the population for high
quality food products, Comrades Jaromir Algayer, Ondre Vanek, and Julius Varga, ministers of
agriculture and food, have been charged with the task of drawing up a concept of nutrition policy for the
We have set ourselves exacting tasks in satisfying people's housing needs in this 5year plan. Our society
spends an annual average of between Kcs 20 and Kcs 27 billion on this important constituent part of the
standard of living. Yet it holds true for this area that the use of extensive methods, the construction of new
housing estates "on green sites" must not continue.
People's demands in respect to the quality of the housing stock and the standard of the infrastructure are
increasingly coming to the fore. It is precisely on this count that we owe our people a lot–we repair too
little, and valuable assets get lost because of inadequate maintenance. The modernization of older
apartments is also progressing too slowly. These difficulties are known and they are rather frequently the
subject of negotiations in various agencies. Remedy comes slowly, however, and only in some places. We
identify with the public's criticism of the current approaches by planning, financial, control, and other
agencies, including the two republican ministries of construction and the building industry led by
Comrades Jaroslav Vavra and Ivan Steis.
The situation in housing construction has come to a head in the last 3 years, with the result that the
handing over of around 33,000 apartments, 23,000 of which were to be built by contractors, is
jeopardized. Even in these matters we are advocates of an open and realistic policy that is in conformity
with actual possibilities. We do not think it is right to repeat the mistakes of the past and will not allow
incomplete apartments to be counted as complete, or demands on quality to be scaled down.
We are of the opinion that it is within the power of the relevant agencies to improve substantially and
within a short period of time the conditions for the development of individual housing construction by
simplifying the regulations and improving supplies of building materials.
In it housing policy the party has always proceeded from the principle of combining economic and social
considerations, and it will continue to be guided by it. This principle must be given concrete shape in
such a way that in every period conditions are established for harmonizing social and individual interests.
We must not continue to watch idly how, with the passing of time, the correct aim of protecting the social
interests of people, especially families with children, is turned against its original purpose. The social
gain of low and greatly subsidized rents is being misused on a large scale to obtain unearned income.
Irregularities and instances of injustice in housing policy are among the most frequent complaints and, for
the most part, they are absolutely justified. Honest people cannot understand how it is possible that
national committees and the enterprises of housing economy run by them tolerate longterm nonpayment
of rent, that thousands of apartments are unoccupied for long periods, and that the troubles connected
with acquiring an apartment are being misused for speculative aims, for the illicit enrichment of some
people at the expense of others. We support the steps of those national committees that do not put up with
this and seek ways of setting things right. The proposed amendment to the housing law, which will
become the subject of a public assessment, should contribute to a better management of the housing
inventory. We expect the sociopolitical and economic principles of the new housing policy to be prepared
in time for assessment by the CPCZ Central Committee session on social problems, planned for the
second half of 1989.
A number of sectors in the social sphere suffer from manpower, material, and financial shortages. This is
particularly acute in the case of the transportation of working people to and from work, which was also
the object of very critical remarks at the last alltrade union conference. Do we have enough buses and
drivers, or do we not? At first sight it may seem that they are simply unavailable. Unfortunately, we have
them in places other than where society needs them most. The far too large and not always economically
utilized automobile transportation sector has more than 110,000 official passenger cars with 34,000
drivers. A similar situation exists with the CSAD public automobile transportation enterprise, which is
short of thousands of buses. At the same time, enterprises and social organizations own more than 8,000
of them, almost a half of what the CSAD has.
These figures are no secret. But previous attempts to change the situation were thwarted by the jungle of
regulations, the narrowly departmental arguments of the relevant bodies, and the unwillingness and
indolence of their employees. This cause a feeling of hopelessness and inertia among some of our
citizens. If we were to carry on just talking about this mess and criticizing it, the public would not have
much understanding. The regional and district committees as well must within the framework of their
powers see to it that the transportation capacities are used in the most efficient way.
We regard the demands for improving the material conditions in further spheres of social policy,
especially in education, health care and culture, to be justified. We are also accelerating structural
changes and technical development in order to be able to strengthen the entire tertiary sphere as soon as
possible. In accordance with the prerequisites created we want to seek further sources for gradually
resolving at least the most urgent needs in the course of the year. In this, we proceed from the forecasts
contained in the government program statement.
Comrades, the development of our economy in the past 4 decades has revealed that the attempts to
manufacture everything ourselves, to isolate ourselves from the external economic environment, have had
a very negative impact on scientifictechnical progress, the quality of products, and the overall
performance of our economy. The important thing will be to become most extensively involved in the
world economy, especially through direct relations at the level of enterprises and by establishing joint
The coordination of the economic policy of the CEMA member states and the intensification of the
integration processes and the restructuring of their mechanisms will be assessed at a working meeting of
the highest party officials of the CEMA member states in Prague in March 1989. As host country we will
strive to ensure that these discussions will help harmonize views on the direction, means, and methods for
the development of economic cooperation. We favor having a joint structural strategy for the community
and the establishment of a common market. The development of comprehensive, mutually advantageous
economic relations with the Soviet Union will also play an important role for our entire economy in the
coming period. The federal premier will hold talks with the Soviet side on a number of weighty issues at
the beginning of next year. It will be necessary to jointly assess structural plans in production and
scientific-technical cooperation and conditions for the broader development of direct relations. In the
spirit of the conclusions adopted by the CPCZ Central Committee Presidium on the results of the 19th
All-Union CPCZ Conference, we want to clarify approaches to creating the mechanism of bilateral
We are also seriously considering the need to fundamentally change the unsatisfactory development in
external economic relations. We want to avoid a further growth in indebtedness abroad. We do not intend
to fritter away our national income in unutilized external assets. In addition, exports supported by th
government or preferential credits and the provision of various kinds of foreign assistance must be in
proportion to our possibilities in the future. Therefore, as early as 1989 we will begin to modify the
structure of our foreign trade. . . .
"Adamec CPCZ Central Committee Plenum Speech," Rudé Pravo, December 17, 1988.
"Adamec CPCZ Central Committee Plenum Speech," Rudé Pravo, December 17, 1988.