Thumbnail of woman selling items in the street

De Tente en el Aire y Mulata, Albarrasado


This is a painting of a mulata woman selling fruit in New Spain (Mexico). Though there were large numbers of Africans and then Creole blacks and mulattoes in New Spain at this time, little information about them exists.

Declaration of Rights and Duties of Man and Citizen, Constitution of the Year III (1795)


After the fall of Robespierre and the dismantling of the Terror, the National Convention drafted yet another republican constitution. The new constitution was also approved in a referendum and put into effect 26 October 1795. It remained until Napoleon came to power in November 1799. Note that this declaration links duties with rights. It also drops the references to welfare and public... Read More »

Denunciation of a Woman Participant in the Uprising of May 1795


Once the uprising of May 1795 had been suppressed, the government set up a military tribunal, which gathered denunciations of presumed rioters. This one gives a good sense of the charges made and the kind of language used ("infernal sect of Jacobin terrorists, blood–drinkers, etc.").

Baltic Shaft newspaper, 1988

Desirable and Difficult Fate


Article about Nina Gagen-Torn published in the Baltic Shaft newspaper in 1988.

Diary of a Woman at Fifty


Born in 1770 and married to the only surviving son of one of the greatest noble families in France, the Marquise de la Tour du Pin endured humiliation, emigration, and Terror during the first part of the revolutionary decade. Upon her return to France with her husband in 1796, she was shocked at the aristocratic style and open royalism of many powerful government figures.

Cover of A Tale of Two Cities

Dickens, Tale of Two Cities


Charles Dickens’s (1812–70) novels generally appeared in serial form in popular newspapers. Usually he took his subjects and characters from contemporary English society, but in this novel he created one of the most enduring and pessimistic English–language portrayals of the French Revolution, particularly the fearsome female "knitters" of the Faubourg Saint–Antoine in Paris, like Madame... Read More »

Discussion of Citizenship under the Proposed New Constitution (29 April 1793)


In the discussion of a new constitution in April 1793, Jean–Denis Lanjuinais spoke for the constitutional committee. He admitted that the question of women’s rights had aroused controversy.

Discussion of Women’s Political Clubs and Their Suppression, 29–30 October 1793


On 29 October 1793, a group of women appeared in the National Convention to complain that female militants had tried to force them to wear the red cap of liberty as a sign of their adherence to the Revolution, but they also presented a petition demanding the suppression of the women’s club behind these actions. Their appearance provided the occasion for a discussion of women’s political... Read More »

Discussion of Women’s Political Clubs—Amar


In a follow–up to Fabre d’Eglantine’s speech on 29 October, Jean–Baptiste Amar proposed an official decree on 3 October forbidding women to join together in political associations. A deputy tried to argue that this notion ran contrary to the right of freedom of association, but he was shouted down by the other deputies.

Sketch of a doctor examining a patient

Doctor Examining a Patient


In the color sketch from her self-illustrated memoirs, Evfrosiniia Kersnovskaia is examined by Doctor Mardna, while Nurse Margarita stands at the end of the bed. In the accompanying text, Kersnovskaia describes how well they took care of her, and how she trusted them completely.