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Article from the Encyclopedia: "Woman"

Source

The article "Woman" was written by four contributors who considered the question from four angles: medicine and the history of opinions about women’s nature; writings about women’s place in the state and marriage; the social differences between men and women; and women’s legal status in different societies. Although the Encyclopedia, the fundamental compendium of the Enlightenment, repeated... Read More »

Haseki Hürrem Baths in Istanbul

Ayyubid and Ottoman Architecture

Source

In the Islamic world, women were able to own and control their own property at a time when Christian women in Europe were unable to do so. Many wealthy women endowed public buildings as a mark of their piety. In these examples, we see the way that Ayyubid and Ottoman women used the endowment of public architecture to engage directly in public life. Built in their names and with their money,... Read More »

BaAka Women Dancing the Hunting Dance thumbnail image

BaAka Women Dancing the Hunting Dance, Ndambo

Source

This is an image of female BaAka dancers from the southwestern Central African Republic in the rainforest region dancing a hunting dance called Ndambo. Music and dance are important in BaAka culture. They can be performed for many reasons—sometimes in preparation for a hunt, other times to display skill. Dance and music bring together neighboring groups, helping people build social ties while... Read More »

Bamboo River II, Tale of Genji Painting Scroll

Source

The greatest work produced during the Heian era was The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu, lady-in-waiting to Empress Akiko. Considered the world’s first novel, Genji is written as an absorbing portrait of Heian court life, the splendor of its rituals, and aesthetic culture. The Tale of Genji has been, through the centuries, the subject of visual illustration and... Read More »

Beautiful Fatima

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Photography was critical to imperialism. The French army (and the British army in India) employed the camera’s lens to chronicle military exploits, first in Algeria during the 1850s, and later in Tunisia and Morocco. With advances in photographic technology, portrait studios were established in Europe and in European empires. Most studio photography in this period produced family portraits... Read More »

thumbnail of a veena

Bhakti Poets

Teaching

This teaching module outlines the Bhakti Movement - a Hindu religious movement originating in the 6th century CE that was inspired by a number of prominent women poets. The module contains an essay that provides an overview of history and significance of the Bhakti and a number of images and samples of Bhakti poetry. The primary sources referenced in this module can be viewed in the Primary... Read More »

thumbnail of the god siva

Bhakti Poets: Poem, Akkamahadevi

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Bhakti poets—who were in some cases lower-caste Hindu women—and their audiences drew emotional sustenance from these verses, which expressed a pure devotion to Hindu deities. Their poetry, written in local languages beginning in the 6th century in South India and the 12th century in North India, attracted large audiences among the marginalized in Hindu society, such as women and “untouchables... Read More »

thumbnail of the god siva

Bhakti Poets: Poem, Akkamahadevi 2

Source

Bhakti poets—who were in some cases lower-caste Hindu women—and their audiences drew emotional sustenance from these verses, which expressed a pure devotion to Hindu deities. Their poetry, written in local languages beginning in the 6th century in South India and the 12th century in North India, attracted large audiences among the marginalized in Hindu society, such as women and “untouchables... Read More »

Bhakti Poets: Poem, Bahinabai

Source

“To leave a husband is against the teachings of the Vedas, and
thereby one can never acquire the supreme spiritual riches.

At my door there seemed a great serpent hissing at me. How could I
live under such conditions?

It is the teaching of the Vedas, that one should not neglect one’s duty,
but my love was for the worship of God (Hari).

Says Bahini, ‘I was... Read More »

Literary Source Thumbnail

Bhakti Poets: Poem, Bahinabai 2

Source

Bhakti poets—who were in some cases lower-caste Hindu women—and their audiences drew emotional sustenance from these verses, which expressed a pure devotion to Hindu deities. Their poetry, written in local languages beginning in the 6th century in South India and the 12th century in North India, attracted large audiences among the marginalized in Hindu society, such as women and “untouchables... Read More »

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