Thumbnail image of The Secret of England's Greatness painting.

Long Teaching Module: Women in the British Empire, 1800-2000


This module will help students explore the importance of women—both British women and women from British colonies—to the British Empire, as well as their importance in developing an understanding of Britain as an imperial power to a domestic audience at home. As a result, these materials provide some insight into the ways in which concepts of racial purity and proper gender roles bounded the... Read More »

Map of the Partition of Israel and Palestine


In 1947, Britain announced that it would terminate its mandate government in Palestine. As a result, a special committee formed by the United Nations was charged with partitioning the territory into separate, sovereign states. Although the plan called for Jewish and Arab states neatly divided by plotted lines, the reality, as these maps show, was much more contested. Movement, war, and... Read More »

March of the Powers Allied against France


This engraving uses classical figures to depict allegorically an alliance of Prussia, Britain, and Austria, represented as "Tyranny, Hypocrisy, and Pride," who seek to divide the map of France among themselves, while the French Nation prepares to resist so as to bring peace and tranquility to all of Europe.

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Marxists Internet Archive

Because the Archive offers such a wide-ranging set of sources from the Marxist tradition, students can be encouraged to explore cross-cultural comparisons.
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Mau Mau Fighters in Scout Uniforms


In the early 1950s, tens of thousands of poor and landless Kikuyus revolted against the Kenyan colonial government and wealthy members of their own community who were allied with the British regime. Known as the "Mau Mau Emergency," this rebellion was one of the most serious threats to British rule in Africa. The widespread lawlessness of the Emergency inspired many young Africans to dress as... Read More »

Mausoleum of José de San Martín


In 1816, after more than two centuries of Spanish rule, the nation of Argentina declared its independence. One of the leaders of the independence movement was José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras, more commonly known as General San Martín. He fought in battles in Argentina, Peru, and Chile. The Argentine public has historically regarded him as a father of the independence movement. The... Read More »

Painting of men on a stoop reading a newspaper with shocked expressions surrounded by

Mexican-American War and the Media

The contrast between coverage of the war in the United States and in England is particularly striking.

Mexico Cartoon, 1846


This cartoon was published in New York in June 1846 as a lithograph, a month after the United States declared war on Mexico on May 13, 1846 to begin the Mexican-American War, which resulted in U.S. annexation of Mexico’s northern territory. Lithographs were printed cheaply from original drawings using crayon, limestone, and rolled-on ink. The image is both morbid and satirical, depicting three... Read More »

Portrait of Indigenous Men by Lorenzo Becerril ca. 1890-1900

Mexico: From Empire to Revolution

By making hundreds of photographs available and placing them in a clear, historical context, the website provides students with a fascinating perspective on several crucial decades in Mexican history.
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Although a small minority in the Legislative Assembly when it convened in September 1791, the Girondins succeeded in passing a resolution in favor of war with "the King of Bohemia and Hungary," meaning the Habsburg Empire in April 1792. Citing the Pillnitz Declaration and Louis’s continued resistance to war to their advantage, throughout the first half of 1791, Jacques–Pierre Brissot and his... Read More »