Education in a Warzone


In some regions of the Middle East today, conflict impacts students' daily educational experience. Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, militants have targeted educational establishments, thousands of academics have fled the country, and up to 70% of schools have been closed. People in this region maintain their high regard for education in the face of adversity, as this podcast relates.

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Eighteenth-Century Uruguayan Home


On display here are several objects from the Museo Casa de Nacarello, a small museum in Colonia, Uruguay that aims to recreate daily life in an eighteenth-century home. The building that houses the museum dates from that period, and it contains furniture, dishes, and decorations that residents of Colonia would have used at the time. In the corner of this room, a washing basin sits on a small... Read More »

Excerpt from Aguinaldo’s Case Against The United States


The Philippines, an archipelago of over 7,000 islands in the western Pacific Ocean, had been a Spanish colony for over 300 years by the 1890s. Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo rebelled against Spanish rule beginning in 1896. When the United States declared war against Spain over events in Cuba in 1898, the U.S. Navy moved against Spanish colonies in the Pacific as well. U.S.... Read More »

First Sounds of the Hymn of Independence


The nation of Brazil declared its independence from Portugal on September 7, 1822 after three centuries of colonial rule. At this time, Brazil was ruled by Emperor Pedro I (1822-1831). It joined the many other nations that declared their independence during this period across the former Portuguese and Spanish empires. Together with journalist and poet Evaristo da Veiga, he composed the... Read More »

Florence Farmborough

Florence Farmborough’s Journal


Florence Farmborough was an English nurse working on the Russian front during World War I. Her diary contains many descriptive, lively accounts of the war and the very active role played by women, both in the traditional role as caretakers of the wounded, but also as fighters.

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Foreign Relations of the United States, Volume XVII: Near East, 1961-1962

These documents provide crucial historical evidence of the attitudes American diplomats and officials held toward the countries of the Middle East, as well as uncovering aspects of foreign relations from an American perspective at the height of the Cold War.

French Victory at the Battle of Jemmappes


This engraving first appeared in the newspaper Révolutions de Paris and shows the French General Charles–François Dumouriez entering the city of Mons after having led French forces to their first truly decisive victory of the war on 6 November 1792. According to the caption, this victory demonstrated to all of Europe that French forces, although having lost their traditional officer class... Read More »

Fusillades at Lyon, Ordered by Collot–D’Herbois


Lyon’s rebellion against the central government in September 1793 had terrible repercussions that seemed only to worsen with the initiation of collective trials and immediate executions by firing squad. The one depicted here on 4 December 1793 took the lives of 935 people, another 732 being guillotined over the next four months.

Gallic Declaration of War, or, Bumbardment of all Europe


This scatological English cartoon mocks France’s claim that it was going to war for "liberty," suggesting instead that France’s body politic is ill and that England needs to fight back to defend itself from such sickness. The figures in this drawing represent all the major leaders of Europe, including Louis XVI, Catherine of Russia, William Pitt, King George III of Britain, and the Pope, while... Read More »

Girls Making Snowman painting thumbnail

Girls Making Snowman


Motivated by wartime hysteria and racial sentiments following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 that ordered the removal of Japanese Americans on the West Coast to internment camps in the interior. Children were over half of the 110,000-120,000 Japanese Americans forced to leave friends, pets, possessions—even... Read More »