Teaching The Crusade of Richard I


I used the Crusade of Richard I to help my students understand how Christians and Muslims felt about each other and themselves as they competed for dominance in the Holy Land. My students learned that people who lived in the premodern world reacted to each other with many of the same emotions and attitudes we do today. The primary sources referenced in this module can be viewed in the Primary... Read More »

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In the spring of 1792, the Legislative Assembly—particularly its Executive Committee, dominated by Girondins—took a more aggressive attitude toward Austria, repeatedly arguing that France needed to act first to ward off invasion and thereby not only preserve but advance the Revolution by spreading it across Europe. In June 1792, Jean–Marie Roland de la Platière, a Girondin minister in the King... Read More »

Thumbnail image shows an ruins of an ancient temple with 6 tiers

A PreColumbian Portfolio: An Archive of Photographs

Each database record includes a caption, a brief (about 20-word) description, and information on the culture associated with the artifact, such as Maya, Olmec, or Zapotec.

An Ordinary British Soldier Recounts the Portuguese Campaign (1810)


This account, probably by Thomas Howell, a soldier of the Highland Light Infantry regiment, offers a firsthand account of the skirmishes between British/Portuguese forces and the French armies. Little is known about Howell except that he was born in 1790 of Methodist parents. His memoir was published shortly after the events described (a second edition dates from 1819).

An Ordinary Soldier’s Account (1806)


The “French” armies included units from many allied states. Excerpted below is the memoir of an ordinary foot soldier in Napoleon’s army. Jakob Walter came from Württemburg, one of the medium-size German states allied with Napoleon. He fought against other German states, in this instance Prussia.

Another Firsthand View of the Fighting in Portugal


This account by British Private William Wheeler of the 51st Regiment gives a vivid account of the hand–to–hand fighting in Portugal. Wheeler’s letters home were saved by the family and form the basis of their publication in 1949.

Portrait of a man sitting at a table

Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy

The site is most valuable where it has gathered together extensive sources about a specific historical theme or event.
Battle For and Taking of Ratisbon

Battle For and Taking of Ratisbon, April 23, 1809


The general peace agreement lasted a scant two years after the treaty of 1801. Although unable to seriously threaten an occupation of the British Isles, Napoleon was very successful on the continent, launching major wars into Austria, Prussia, Spain, and Italy until overreaching into Russia in 1812. The attack on Ratisbon was a key part of a struggle against Austria. Although defeated before,... Read More »

Battle of Aboukir

Battle of Aboukir


Napoleon’s eventual acquisition of political power may be attributed partly to his success in publicizing his Egyptian campaign as a great victory for France that spread the values of the Revolution. These engravings by the writer and artist Vivant Denon were published in 1802, four years after the campaign when Napoleon was already in power. This first image depicts The Battle of the Pyramids... Read More »