Posada Broadsheet

Posada Broadsheet


This broadsheet was made my Mexican printer Jose Guadlupe Posada in 1903. The broadsheet itself was called Calavera oaxaqueña, of "the skull from Oaxaca," in reference to the rural city it was published for. The broadsheet also depicts Posada's popular use of the images of skulls and crossbones, in addition to his use of print in general, as a political and cultural critique. Posada relied... Read More »

Thumbnail image of Postcard of Women and Girls with Cradleboard in Chile

Postcard of Women and Girls with Cradleboard, Temuco, Chile


This postcard, from the early 20th century, shows a group of women and children, most likely belonging to the Mapuche people. The Mapuche occupied a large area in the cone of South America, the territory of the current nations of Chile and Argentina. Indigenous American tribes were popular subjects for postcards around the turn of the 20th century, and a large subgroup of postcards portrayed... Read More »

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Primary Source: Educating Global Citizens

Such sources are indeed a superb addition to one’s class; unquestionably the materials on the Primary Source site can help enhance any class.

Remains of the Puerta de la Ciudadela


The city of Montevideo, Uruguay, once belonged to the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, under the control of the Spanish Crown. It was officially founded in 1724. Around this time, the government constructed a wall around the city. Such walls served important defensive purposes, especially for places like Montevideo, which directly bordered the sprawling Portuguese territory of Brazil. This... Read More »

Report from the General Inspection of the Chupaychu


This is a report from a Spanish inspector dating from 1549, written by a European scribe, based on an Andean’s reading of a khipu, the collections of cords on which Incas recorded information. It comes from the Huallaga Valley, an area that had put up strong resistance to Spanish rule and had been conquered only in 1542. Spanish authorities wished to know about the obligations imposed by the... Read More »

Ruins of the Convento de San Francisco


These structures are all that remain from a convent built near the coast of modern-day Uruguay in the 1690s. It is located in Colonia del Sacramento, a city that switched back and forth from Spanish rule to Portuguese rule several times during the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Its unstable political identity resulted from its positioning in a highly contested region. Although... Read More »

San Antonio Convent


Located in the capital city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, this convent is one of the oldest religious structures in the region. The current structure was built in 1780, during the final decades of Portuguese rule in the area. The Portuguese Crown had ruled this territory since the sixteenth century, and the monarch even lived there after having to flee from Europe when the French invaded in 1808... Read More »

Scandal at the Church: José de Alfaro Accuses Doña Theresa Bravo and Others of Insulting and Beating His Castiza Wife, Joséfa Cadena (Mexico, 1782)


Systems of honor in colonial Mexico meant that insults were more than just Swords. Utterances that defamed men and women of good reputation had to be answered or the slight to their personal status within the community would be permanent. Gossip underscored these taints, and although usually not as open, it could serve the same purpose as insults. Local elites believed that systems of honor... Read More »

Chart of School Population in Buenos Aires, Argentina image thumbnail

School Population in Buenos Aires, Argentina


This chart demonstrates the fluctuating attendance rates of school aged children in a select number of schools in Buenos Aires between 1815 and 1831. This is not a complete list of the port city’s schools; it represents schools that maintained the most complete attendance records. By 1815, Buenos Aires had 13 elementary schools with 1,200 students, which only accounted for approximately five... Read More »

Bronze monument of Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia

Short Teaching Module: Controversial Historical Monuments


I use images of three historical statues that triggered controversy beginning in the 2010s to teach about the concept of contested historical memory and to have students consider parallels and differences among public history controversies in different parts of the world. I have several aims in using the images. While it is beyond the scope of this lesson to cover the histories of European... Read More »