Map of the world with colors indicating the level of judicial independence in each state's constitution.

Primer: Comparative History


Comparison is used in many different ways in world history, both implicitly and explicitly. Explicit types of comparison used by historians today include “entangled comparisons,” which compare pairs in which the similarities might come from interaction with each other; “encompassing comparison,” in which the pair may not interact with each other directly, but are both parts of some larger... Read More »

Graphic of a tree crosscut showing rings

Primer: Environmental History


Environmental history lends itself particularly well to a world history framework. Environmental processes do not limit themselves to national or cultural borders. The climate, for example, has always been a global system. Environmental history may also consist of unusual sources and feature "archives" that exist in the natural world. For teachers, environmental history can be an approach that... Read More »

image of gender roles being portrayed

Primer: Gender in World History


Gender history developed in the 1980s out of women’s history, when historians familiar with studying women increasingly began to discuss the ways in which systems of sexual differentiation affected both women and men. Historians interested in this new perspective asserted that gender was an appropriate category of analysis when looking at all historical developments, not simply those involving... Read More »

Map of the earth showing areas where lights can be seen from space at night

Primer: The History of Globalization


Globalization, defined here as the integration of an interdependent economy that simultaneously enhances cultural exchanges relying on the mobility of people, animals, plants, pathogens, objects, and ideas, is a useful concept for exploring connections across space and time. In this essay, scholar Diego Olstein traces the various ways the chronology of globalization has been understood by... Read More »

Ptolemy's Map displays a out of proportion western Europe, Mediterranean, and North Africa.

Ptolemy's World Map


Claudius Ptolemy lived in the city of Alexandria in Egypt from about 100 to 170 CE. At that time Egypt was a Roman province and Ptolemy may have been a Roman citizen. A geographer and astronomer, Ptomely's book Geographia, influenced mapmakers on questions such as the size of the earth for centuries.

Geographia had been translated into Arabic in the 9th century and... Read More »

A Mohur-Akbar coil from the Mughal Empire

RBI Monetary Museum Galleries

The wide selection of currencies and time periods make this useful for classroom instruction and for generating discussion.
Image of a map showing the east coast of the United States

Running Reality

This site is great for teaching students about geographical analysis and how historical events affect the physical environment and territories of people and groups.
Drawing of two men working to create a large timeline

Salisbury Crags


Before about 1800, most people in the Christian world assumed that the earth was just a few thousand years old. But growing interest in fossils and strange geological formations made some people think the earth must actually be much older.

If you were interested in geology but lived at the time of the French Revolution, and came across this curious geological formation, what would you... Read More »

Detail of an early modern map of the Malay Peninsula

Sejarah Melayu: The History of the Malay Peninsula

Internet resources dealing with Malaysian history are difficult to locate. Although this site has some shortcomings, it remains one of the most accessible sources for such information.

Shiva as the Lord of Dance


This manifestation of the Hindu god Shiva depicts the deity holding a small drum, which symbolizes the audible space that fills the universe, the sound of creative energy. Here, rhythm, drum, and music are manifestations of fundamental Hindu beliefs. At concerts of Indian music, audiences listen to drummers raptly and follow their complex rhythms in cycles. These cycles reflect cultural ideas... Read More »