The Campaign to Save the Danube River


In 1984, the Czechoslovak and Hungarian governments announced a new public project: the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros complex on the Danube River, a 3 billion dollar water project, that would involve the construction of two massive dams (one in each country) and a series of hydroelectric plants. János Vargha was a biologist who had worked for the Hungarian Academy of Sciences for several years, and in... Read More »

The Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project

The Chinese Railroad Workers in America Project is an excellent, multi-faceted model of how rigorous academic research can embrace the digital turn to interface with the public in a clear and accessible way.
Image featuring digital avatar of Rani Pramesti split down in half with the left half of the image featuring geometric designs while the right half features the naga, a mythical Southeast Asian creature

The Chinese Whispers

[The Chinese Whispers] serves as an important and powerful—if somewhat unconventional—primary source, allowing instructors and students to grapple with a variety of topics including Indonesian history, studies of the Overseas Chinese as a diasporic community, and notions of identity and belonging in diverse, multicultural populations.

The Constitution of the Iroquois Nations


This text is the first seven of 117 clauses of the Constitution of the Iroquois Nation. The Iroquois Constitution, also known as the Great Law of Peace, is a written transcription of collected oral histories and traditions that documents the formation of the Haudenosaunee (the Iroquois Confederacy). The Haudenosaunee originally consisted of five nations: the Cayuga, the Onondaga, the Mohawk,... Read More »

The Danger of Humor: GDR Jokes A


George Orwell once wrote, "Every joke is a tiny revolution." In state-socialist societies that had (or have) totalitarian characteristics, individuals found clever ways to carve out areas of freedom for themselves. These may have been areas of social freedom (with family and close friends), physical freedom (at one's small garden cottage), or mental freedom (through humor). There were risks... Read More »

The Declaration of the Civic Forum by Representative Vaclav Havel on Wenceslas Square


Anti-state demonstrations have traditionally taken place in the heart of Prague on Wenceslas Square. After the November 17 police crackdown, it was no accident that the Square became the central point for people to get information, meet others and, from November 21 on, to attend the daily "meetings" when opposition groups addressed citizens from the balcony of the Melantrich publishing house.... Read More »

The Duke de Croy Describes the "Session of the Scourging" (3 March 1766)


The twelve highest royal courts, known as Parlements, not only heard civil and criminal suits; they also had the responsibility of discussing and registering royal edicts before enactment. Consequently, the Parlementary magistrates could, when they saw fit, prevent the King from ruling; by the same token, the King could exercise a sort of reverse veto by forcing the Parlements to register his... Read More »

Map of Tiananmen Square from the site's virtual tour

The Gate of Heavenly Peace

In general, this website is strongest in fulfilling its original purpose—providing supplementary materials and information for an excellent documentary.

The King Speaks to the "National Assembly": Royal Session of 23 June 1789


On 17 June, the deputies of the Third Estate, locked out of the Estates–General meeting hall in Versailles, convened in an empty tennis court, where they swore an oath. In it, they expressed their commitment to drafting a written constitution and proclaimed again that collectively, the deputies represented not three separate orders but a single French nation. In response, the King addressed... Read More »

The Pledge of Jasna Góra


This text was written by Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński in 1956 and used that year for a ceremony at the Marian shrine of Jasna Góra in the town of Częstochowa. Promoted heavily by the Polish Episcopate, the pledge became a mainstay of organized pilgrimages and remains popular to this day. Częstochowa was the site of a famous battle in 1655, when an invading Swedish (Protestant) army besieged the... Read More »