The Times, London, 1863

London Newspaper


This source represents both the power and importance of context when reading local sources and how the speed of information has changed drastically over time. This is the front page of the Times of London, one of the most complete and accurate newspapers in the world in the mid-1800s, on the morning after the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania, a major historical event. Someone... Read More »

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The "Central Committee" organizing royalist efforts in 1795 was led by François–Athanése de Charette de la Contrie, a former nobleman. He had participated in the Vendéan uprising in 1793, with the goal of restoring to the throne the nearest living relative to the executed Louis XVI—his brother the Count of Provence who had already taken the name Louis XVIII. (For royalists, the son of Louis... Read More »

Map of the Partition of Israel and Palestine


In 1947, Britain announced that it would terminate its mandate government in Palestine. As a result, a special committee formed by the United Nations was charged with partitioning the territory into separate, sovereign states. Although the plan called for Jewish and Arab states neatly divided by plotted lines, the reality, as these maps show, was much more contested. Movement, war, and... Read More »

March of the Powers Allied against France


This engraving uses classical figures to depict allegorically an alliance of Prussia, Britain, and Austria, represented as "Tyranny, Hypocrisy, and Pride," who seek to divide the map of France among themselves, while the French Nation prepares to resist so as to bring peace and tranquility to all of Europe.

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Massacre of the Prisoners


Yet another image from the newspaper R*volutions de Paris shows crowds massacring refractory clergy and prisoners. These panels reveal similar occurrences at the police prisons of the Chatelet and the Bic*tre, where altogether an estimated 800 were killed in the first week of September.

Massacre of the Prisoners of St. Germain Abbey


In one of the most widely reported incidents of the September massacres, a "jury" of twelve "commissioners" was formed spontaneously in the Saint–Germain Abbey to judge the refractory clergy held there as prisoners. After an interrogation and threats of "prealable interrogation" (a form of torture used by the Inquisition), the convicted criminals were put to death in the name of "the people."... Read More »

Mausoleum of José de San Martín


In 1816, after more than two centuries of Spanish rule, the nation of Argentina declared its independence. One of the leaders of the independence movement was José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras, more commonly known as General San Martín. He fought in battles in Argentina, Peru, and Chile. The Argentine public has historically regarded him as a father of the independence movement. The... Read More »

Thumnail image of a painting of a catfish on a Mayan vase

Maya Vase Database: An Archive of Rollout Photographs

The vases include scenes of palace life, mythology, warfare, and animals.
Meeting of the Emperors at Tilsit

Meeting of the Emperors at Tilsit


In July 1807, Napoleon and Alexander agreed to cooperate. Napoleon used this strategy to prevent his enemies from forming an alliance against him.

This source is a part of the The Napoleonic Experience teaching module.

Memorable Day at Versailles, 5 October 1789


This engraving marks success and reconciliation among revolutionaries, as men and women, as well as soldiers and civilians, relax together.