"The Radical's Arms" a political cartoon criticizing French Revolutionaries for the reign of terror by depicting two peasants with a guillotine before a burning globe

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

It is this type of versatility, coupled with the topical essays and the intuitive design of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity that makes this site a welcome resource for teachers of European history and world history (and their students).

Lila-Pilipina Brochure


The Lila-Pilipina Brochure is a creation of the feminist group of Filipino “comfort women" called Lila-Pilipina, who have banded together with feminist goals/messages for peace. "Comfort women" were women during World War II forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese military, although it took decades for this to be acknowledged, and to this day is not acknowledged in Japanese history books.... Read More »

The Times, London, 1863

London Newspaper


This source represents both the power and importance of context when reading local sources and how the speed of information has changed drastically over time. This is the front page of the Times of London, one of the most complete and accurate newspapers in the world in the mid-1800s, on the morning after the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania, a major historical event. Someone... Read More »

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Long Teaching Module: Masculinity and Femininity in the Mongol Empire


This module examines ideals of masculinity and femininity among the Mongols, the Central Asian nomadic pastoralists who in the thirteenth century under their leader Chinggis Khan created the largest land-based empire the world has ever seen. Like all empires, the Mongol Empire was created by military conquest, and men formed the bulk of the fighting force, but women were also important in the... Read More »

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The "Central Committee" organizing royalist efforts in 1795 was led by François–Athanése de Charette de la Contrie, a former nobleman. He had participated in the Vendéan uprising in 1793, with the goal of restoring to the throne the nearest living relative to the executed Louis XVI—his brother the Count of Provence who had already taken the name Louis XVIII. (For royalists, the son of Louis... Read More »

Photograph from the collection of Metropolitan Railways Assistant Guards 'Consulting the Working Book'

Manchester Digital Collections

An incredibly user-friendly and accessible platform to explore an impressive array of digitized historical and cultural objects

Map of the Partition of Israel and Palestine


In 1947, Britain announced that it would terminate its mandate government in Palestine. As a result, a special committee formed by the United Nations was charged with partitioning the territory into separate, sovereign states. Although the plan called for Jewish and Arab states neatly divided by plotted lines, the reality, as these maps show, was much more contested. Movement, war, and... Read More »

March of the Powers Allied against France


This engraving uses classical figures to depict allegorically an alliance of Prussia, Britain, and Austria, represented as "Tyranny, Hypocrisy, and Pride," who seek to divide the map of France among themselves, while the French Nation prepares to resist so as to bring peace and tranquility to all of Europe.

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Massacre of the Prisoners


Yet another image from the newspaper R*volutions de Paris shows crowds massacring refractory clergy and prisoners. These panels reveal similar occurrences at the police prisons of the Chatelet and the Bic*tre, where altogether an estimated 800 were killed in the first week of September.

Massacre of the Prisoners of St. Germain Abbey


In one of the most widely reported incidents of the September massacres, a "jury" of twelve "commissioners" was formed spontaneously in the Saint–Germain Abbey to judge the refractory clergy held there as prisoners. After an interrogation and threats of "prealable interrogation" (a form of torture used by the Inquisition), the convicted criminals were put to death in the name of "the people."... Read More »