Farewell Bastille


This hand–colored engraving equates the taking of the Bastille with the rise of the Third Estate against the clergy and nobility. A commoner in a black hat sporting a tricolor cockade plays the bagpipe triumphantly over the fallen lion of the absolutist monarchy. To the side, a revolutionary soldier raises his sword to menace a priest.

First Sounds of the Hymn of Independence


The nation of Brazil declared its independence from Portugal on September 7, 1822 after three centuries of colonial rule. At this time, Brazil was ruled by Emperor Pedro I (1822-1831). It joined the many other nations that declared their independence during this period across the former Portuguese and Spanish empires. Together with journalist and poet Evaristo da Veiga, he composed the... Read More »

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Foreign Relations of the United States, Volume XVII: Near East, 1961-1962

These documents provide crucial historical evidence of the attitudes American diplomats and officials held toward the countries of the Middle East, as well as uncovering aspects of foreign relations from an American perspective at the height of the Cold War.

Foundation of the Republic, August 10, 1792


One of the sharper engagements of 10 August between the revolutionaries and the royal defenders occurred on the palace’s steps. The caption emphasizes the revolutionaries’ point of view.

Thumbnail of a man in a native american headress holding a hatchet

Framing Canada: A Photographic Memory

The images, dating from 1843 to the mid-20th century, come from government, commercial, and private sources.

French Victory at the Battle of Jemmappes


This engraving first appeared in the newspaper Révolutions de Paris and shows the French General Charles–François Dumouriez entering the city of Mons after having led French forces to their first truly decisive victory of the war on 6 November 1792. According to the caption, this victory demonstrated to all of Europe that French forces, although having lost their traditional officer class... Read More »

Fusillades at Lyon, Ordered by Collot–D’Herbois


Lyon’s rebellion against the central government in September 1793 had terrible repercussions that seemed only to worsen with the initiation of collective trials and immediate executions by firing squad. The one depicted here on 4 December 1793 took the lives of 935 people, another 732 being guillotined over the next four months.

Girls Making Snowman painting thumbnail

Girls Making Snowman


Motivated by wartime hysteria and racial sentiments following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 that ordered the removal of Japanese Americans on the West Coast to internment camps in the interior. Children were over half of the 110,000-120,000 Japanese Americans forced to leave friends, pets, possessions—even... Read More »

Gorbachev discusses De-Militarization


In the midst of a chaotic year of economic and political reforms, Communist Party General Secretary (and head of state) Mikhail Gorbachev addressed the politburo on the delicate issue of the Soviet military presence throughout Europe. Conventional Soviet military thinking was that any troop buildup by NATO countries must be met by tit-for-tat by the Warsaw Pact countries; to act otherwise was... Read More »

Detail: A painting titled "Moment of Tearing" by Ryuji Ishitani showing a person ducking in cover in a flash of light

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum

The historical material that is presented from multiple angles carefully allows the material to speak for the catastrophe and reconstruction.