Remonstrance by the Parlement against the Denial of Sacraments in Orléans


In 1713, the Pope had issued a bull entitled Unigenitus, condemning as heretical 101 beliefs held by some French Catholic priests who were known as "Jansenists." To Jansenists, this bull, or "constitution," was the religious equivalent of absolutism—an order from on high that quashed all opposition. By contrast, the bishops of the Catholic Church in France, mostly from the Jesuit order,... Read More »

Remonstrance of Court of Aides (1775)


The Court of Aides was a special chamber of the Parlement of Paris dealing with taxation. It, too, could issue "remonstrances" to protest against royal edicts that it opposed. In this remonstrance, the Court of Aides protests against reforms proposed by ministers to the newly crowned king, Louis XVI. The court argues generally for the right of the "nation"—as represented by the Parlements,... Read More »

Remonstrances of Parlement of Paris against Turgot’s Six Edicts (1776)


In these remonstrances, the magistrates of the Parlement of Paris,recently restored to their position by Louis XVI after having been "exiled" from office by Louis XV in 1771, voice their opposition to reforms proposed by the finance minister, Anne–Robert–Jacques Turgot. In the first, they argue against Turgot’s idea of raising money by taxing lands owned by nobles. The magistrates (themselves... Read More »

Royal Decree Convoking the Estates–General and the Parlementary Response (1788)


By the fall of 1788, parlementary opposition to royal reforms had brought about a stalemate, with the Parlements refusing all reforms to the tax system. To gain the Parlement of Paris’s acceptance of new loans to keep the monarchy from going bankrupt, the new finance minister (Louis XVI’s fifth), Étienne–Charles Loménie de Brienne, decided to convoke an Estates–General for the first time since... Read More »

Rudé Pravo Alcohol and Cigarette Abuse


Alcohol and cigarette consumption were very regular parts of everyday life for great numbers of Eastern Europeans, including youth, during the Cold War era. In fact, these countries had some of the highest alcoholism rates in the world and a very large percentage of the population smoked. Recreational drug addiction was not as prevalent as it was in the West, largely due to government efforts... Read More »

Thumbnail of painting of a scene with a young woman whose bare back is examined while a crowd looks and points

Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive

This archive houses a fantastic collection of source materials pertaining to the 160 women and men accused of witchcraft in the late 17th century in the Massachusetts Bay colony.
Sketch of map with notes in Dutch

Sejarah Nusantara

The Sejarah Nusantara represents an invaluable digital archive for international researchers studying the history of Indonesia and maritime Southeast Asia.

Short Teaching Module: Surnames and Nationality


Images of 1989 tend to center on dramatic events in Berlin, Warsaw, Prague, or other major East European cities. However, many of the changes in Eastern Europe and the world were far more subtle but no less important. This teaching module explores a new law passed in Italy in 1991, which was also an attempt to limit the the abuses of Communism as much as a regime change.The primary sources... Read More »

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Slave Women and Children


Although marriage was not forbidden between Europeans and slaves or other non-Europeans, it was quite rare and entailed a drop in social status for the European. Nevertheless, sexual relationships occurred—sometimes coerced, sometimes by mutual agreement. The children born to slave women by these relationships were seldom openly acknowledged by their fathers, and thus usually followed the fate... Read More »

Thumbnail of title image from A picture of slavery, for youth by Jonathan Walker

Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860

This site offers 105 documents published between 1772 and 1889 that deal with the legal experiences of slaves and the legal aspects of slavery in the United States and Great Britain.