Browse
Tag:
thumbnail of the text

Ottoman Decree, 1856

Source

The Ottoman Empire undertook extensive reforms between 1839 and 1876, a period known as the Tanzimat (reorganization). Europeanized Ottoman bureaucrats and a series of decrees from the sultan shaped these reforms that sought administrative, military, legal, and educational improvements. A series of reversals in wars with European powers during the 18th century and the realization that the West... Read More »

Parlement of Brittany

Source

Particularly vocal in its resistance to the financial edicts of 1763 was the Parlement of Rennes, which had jurisdiction in the province of Brittany. A series of "remonstrances," issued by this court between 1763 and 1765, reveal the conflict between the parlementarians and the crown. At first, the magistrates merely protested the proposed new taxes, but when several of them were arrested for... Read More »

Petition of Women of the Third Estate to the King (1 January 1789)

Source

Little is known about women’s grievances or feelings in the months leading up to the meeting of the Estates–General in November 1789. They did not have the right to meet as a group, draft grievances, or vote (except in isolated individual instances) in the preparatory elections. Nevertheless, some women did put their thoughts to paper, and though little evidence exists about the circumstances... Read More »

Police Reports on Disturbances over Food Supplies (February 1793)

Source

The reports of the Paris police provide firsthand information about conditions in the city and about the leading role of women in food disturbances.

Police Reports on Women’s Discontent (Spring 1795)

Source

Agitation over the shortage of bread reached a breaking point in the spring of 1795. Women played critical roles in these disturbances, as they had before the Revolution.

Protests of the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Committees of the Assembly of Notables (1787)

Source

To consider Calonne’s proposed reforms, the Assembly of Notables broke up into committees, each of which issued a report. In these reports, the Notables expressed general agreement with some reform proposals, including the idea of regional, representative assemblies. However, as we see below, various committees of the Assembly of Notables—composed almost entirely of provincial nobles and... Read More »

Provision for the Restatement of Names and Surnames

Source

Images of 1989 tend to center on dramatic events in Berlin, in Beijing, in Bucharest, and in Johannesburg, just to name a few. Visions of mass demonstration and popular uprising predominate. Even in places like the former Czechoslovakia, where peaceful transition occurred in a "velvet" revolution, the perception is one of overthrow of state authority in the name of popular reform. Lost in... Read More »

Puerto Rican Labor Movement: Official Document, Sterilization

Source

Thirty years after Mrs. Roosevelt visited the island of Puerto Rico, working women were still subject to exploitation in the industrial setting—in particular, to coerced sterilization. In this excerpt from a meeting between the Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz-Marín and his cabinet, one of his advisors informed him that in some companies sponsored by the government women were hired only if... Read More »

Puerto Rican Labor Movement: Official Document, Sterilization

Source

Thirty years after Mrs. Roosevelt visited the island of Puerto Rico, working women were still subject to exploitation in the industrial setting—in particular, to coerced sterilization. In this excerpt from a meeting between the Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz-Marín and his cabinet, one of his advisors informed him that in some companies sponsored by the government women were hired only if... Read More »

thumbnail of the text

Rejection of a Higher Age of Consent for Homosexual Acts

Source

The European Commission on Human Rights was the vehicle by which individuals could appeal to the European Court of Human Rights, an arm of the Council of Europe and an organization committed to European integration. In 1994, in the context of a campaign by gay rights activists to have the British age of consent for homosexual acts set at the same level as the age for heterosexual acts, Euan... Read More »

Pages