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Dona Marina in Florentine Codex

Source

This image was created by an indigenous painter in central Mexico and accompanies a written description of the conquest of Tenochtitlan, penned in both Spanish and Nahuatl in the Florentine Codex. The Florentine Codex is one of the fullest Nahuatl descriptions of the conquest. The scene shows Malintzin in the act of translating. She sits upon a palace roof with Cortés. Her... Read More »

Dona Marina, Cortes' Translator: Letter, Hernán Cortés

Source

This excerpt from Cortés’s Second Letter, written to Charles V in 1519 and first published in 1522, is one of only two instances in Cortés’s letters to the King that explicitly mentions his indigenous translator. The letters represent eyewitness accounts of the conquistadors’ deeds and experiences. In spite of the close relationship between Cortés and doña Marina, his comments are terse and... Read More »

Dona Marina, Cortes’ Translator: Nonfiction, Florentine Codex (Nahuatl)

Source

This chapter from the Florentine Codex, a bilingual encyclopedia of central Mexican life and history, was created by the Franciscan friar, Bernardino de Sahagún and indigenous advisors, painters and scribes. Nahuatl and Spanish texts appear side by side, and are accompanied by an image of Malintzin translating. The Nahuatl version of this text describes indigenous objects, words, and emotions... Read More »

Dona Marina, Cortes’ Translator: Nonfiction, Florentine Codex (Spanish)

Source

This chapter from the Florentine Codex, a bilingual encyclopedia of central Mexican life and history was created by the Franciscan friar, Bernardino de Sahagún and indigenous advisors, painters and scribes. Nahuatl and Spanish texts appear side by side, and are accompanied by the image of Malintzin translating (described above). The Spanish text represents Sahagún’s translation of the Nahuatl... Read More »

Dona Marina, Cortes’ Translator: Personal Account, Bernal Díaz del Castillo

Source

Perhaps the most famous 16th-century portrayal of doña Marina, this description is also the most extensive from the period. Díaz del Castillo claims she was beautiful and intelligent, she could speak Nahuatl and Maya. Without doña Marina, he says, the Spaniards could not have understood the language of Mexico. These words, while evocative, were written decades after Díaz del Castillo marched... Read More »

Dona Marina, Cortes’ Translator: Poem, La Malinche

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A well-known Chicana poem about Malinche. Tafolla took inspiration from the famous 1967 poem of the Chicano movement, “Yo Soy Joaquín,” but rewrites from an explicitly feminist perspective. The poem addresses the scene of European colonization, charting Malinche’s fate—as conquered woman, traitor, invincible survivor. Tafolla heightens the tension between traitor and survivor, raped slave and... Read More »

Image of Olaudah Equiano

Early Caribbean Digital Archive

Review
The ECDA is an essential educational resource for studying the history of enslaved and free African, Afro-creole, and Indigenous peoples of the Caribbean, European imperialism and colonialism, and the history of the Caribbean within the wider Atlantic World.
A True Relation of the Unjust Proceedings Against the English Excerpt

Early Modern Dutch and English Propaganda

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The Amboyna trial was a famous conspiracy case that took place in 1623 when a group of Japanese mercenaries were accused of plotting with English merchants to seize control of a Dutch fort on a remote island in Southeast Asia. Despite occurring thousands of miles away in an unfamiliar part of the world, the trial on Amboyna swiftly escalated to become one of the most famous legal cases of the... Read More »

Close-up image of an early modern Ottoman sajjadah rug

Early Modern Ottoman Carpet at the Walters Art Museum

Source

This carpet is a specific type of carpet woven in the Islamic world called a sajjadah or prayer rug. Typically, these carpets will have one or more arches decorating its center field representing early mosque architecture or the mihrab a niche in a wall that directs the worshipper towards the holy site of Mecca. Worshippers use these types of rugs to make their daily prayers and orient... Read More »

Egyptian Misery Shatters French Hopes

Source

Bonaparte’s secretary naively complained how the hopes of the French invasion were shattered by the reality of the situation in Egypt. He clearly expected that the invaded would regard the French as liberators instead of attackers.

This source is a part of the The Napoleonic Experience... Read More »

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