San José de Guadalupe


This church was founded in the late-eighteenth century by Francsisan friars in modern-day Fremont, California. Their goal was to establish a settlement to evangelize the native peoples and coerce them into adopting Spanish ways of living, worshiping, and working. Although it joined a large network of similar missions throughout the borderlands region, it is one of the later-founded... Read More »

San Ysidro and San Buenaventura de Humanas (Gran Quivira)


This church complex was established by Spanish Franciscan friars in modern-day New Mexico in the early seventeenth century. The Crown authorized the creation of several missions throughout this region with the objective of converting the native peoples to Catholicism. The target for these efforts at this mission were the Salinas Pueblos. However, this mission was occupied for less than a... Read More »

Sati Engraving, Burning a Hindoo Widow


Toward the end of the 1700s, the evangelical movement in Britain argued that one’s commitment to Christ should be reflected in action, primarily the effort to end slavery in the British empire and to proselytize or seek converts among the “heathen.” Initially, the English East India Company had prohibited Christian missionaries from living within their territories and seeking Indian converts... Read More »

Detail of an early modern map of the Malay Peninsula

Sejarah Melayu: The History of the Malay Peninsula

Internet resources dealing with Malaysian history are difficult to locate. Although this site has some shortcomings, it remains one of the most accessible sources for such information.
Sketch of map with notes in Dutch

Sejarah Nusantara

The Sejarah Nusantara represents an invaluable digital archive for international researchers studying the history of Indonesia and maritime Southeast Asia.

Seventeenth Century Metal Helmet


This helmet dates to the seventeenth century, and has been restored. It belonged to the Governor and Captain of the Kingdom of New León, Martín de Zavala. This territory spanned the northwest region of modern-day Mexico. Throughout the colonial period, the men who Spain appointed to run its administration often had military backgrounds. Especially in the early days of Spanish rule in the... Read More »

Title page for The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

Short Teaching Module: Childhood and Transatlantic Slavery


Especially useful in helping to place slavery in a world history perspective is one of the first slave narratives, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African, originally published in 1772. A former slave who purchased his freedom from a Quaker merchant in 1766, he traveled across the Atlantic and the Mediterranean on British merchant ships, served in... Read More »

A stone monument with a cross on top.

Short Teaching Module: Christianity and Slavery in the Kingdom of Kongo, 1480s-1520s


Portuguese missionaries brought Christianity to West Africa in the late fifteenth century. They had their greatest success at conversion in the Kingdom of the Kongo, a powerful state that was never conquered in the early modern period. Here rulers created a Kongolese version of Christianity, combining local beliefs and practices with imported ones. At the same time, the kings of Portugal made... Read More »

Front page of a newspaper in Chinese

Short Teaching Module: Colonialism and Local Power


Colonialism and imperialism can take many forms, but more often than not these do not entail direct and strict control from a distant imperial metropole. As a matter of necessity, empires must work with local agents, and perhaps counterintuitively, empires can create uncertainty over territory and legal jurisdiction that offer opportunities for individuals and social groups that might not have... Read More »

Short Teaching Module: Connecting Local and Global History via Mercantile Networks


European merchants spread throughout the world seeking new markets. In doing so, they actively connected remote localities to global networks across multiple continents. Local people around the world often challenged European economic dominance, forcing European merchants to pursue accommodating relationships with local people. We can see these processes within the isolated U.S.-Mexico... Read More »