Ottoman Reform Decree, 1856


The Imperial Reform Edict of Ottoman Sultan Abdulmejid I, appearing originally in 1856 and subsequently in this 1874 publication, promised equality of access to education, government appointments, military service, and administration of justice to all, regardless of religion, language, or race. In the Edict the sultan promised to establish "Provincial Councils" and "Communal Councils” that... Read More »

A stone monument with a cross on top.



In the 1480s, the Portuguese brought pillars (or padraos) with them in their explorations of western and southwestern Africa and placed them at prominent points, claiming these for Portugal. This is a replica of one of them, from what is now called Cape Cross, in Namibia. At the top is a cross and underneath this is the coat of arms of the kings of Portugal. Beneath that is an inscription in... Read More »

Portion of map showing locations of oral histories

Palestinian Oral History Map

Drawing from thousands of hours of interviews from the Palestinian Oral History Archive (POHA), the map provides a stunning visual representation of Palestine in the 1940s, bringing interviewees’ memories of their lost homeland to life.
Image from a Spanish record of testimony

Parallel Histories: Spain, the United States, and the American Frontier

A bilingual, English-Spanish website, Parallel Histories assembles approximately 250 documents relating to the history of Spanish presence in the Americas since the 15th century.

Pathfinder Warrant


Imperial scout headquarters and the national and territorial scout associations were deeply concerned with ensuring that only respectable and responsible men became scoutmasters. In colonial Africa, this meant that potential scoutmasters had to also respect the political realities of European minority rule. As in Great Britain, acceptable candidates received a "warrant" from the territorial... Read More »

Philippine Photographs Digital Archive

A simple yet powerful database that captures the intricacies of the relationship between the United States and the Philippines, the Philippine Photographs Digital Archive provides an important lens with which one can view changes in Filipino life over time.

Photo Library of the French School of Asian Studies

The EFEO has long been one of the leading centres of architectural, archaeological, epigraphic, ethnographic, and art historical research on Asia and this effort to digitise their extensive collection of photographs offers scholars and the public a new lens with which they can view a visually striking and rich region.

Photograph of Fatima the Moroccan


By 1900, only the Kingdom of Morocco remained more or less independent of European rule, although European competition for Morocco was intense between Spain, France, and Germany. Between 1899 and 1912, French armies progressively occupied the country using Algeria as a base. In 1912, the French and Spanish protectorates were declared, with the lion’s share of Moroccan territory going to France... Read More »

Pieter Cnoll, Batavian Senior Merchant


Painted by Jacob Coeman in 1665, this painting depicts Pieter Cnoll, his Eurasian wife Cornelia van Nijenrode, their two daughters, and two enslaved servants. Cnoll was a senior merchant of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Batavia (present-day Jakarta), which was the center of Dutch operations in Asia. His wife, Cornelia, was the daughter of a VOC merchant and a Japanese courtesan.... Read More »

Pocahontas (Matoaka) 1595-1617


Pocahontas, a legendary figure in American history, was the daughter of a powerful 17th-century Powhatan chief. Allegedly seeking retribution for the murder of two tribesmen by the English, Powhatans captured John Smith, one of the founders of Jamestown, Virginia, an English settlement established in 1607. According to Smith's account, Pocahontas (whose real name was Matoaka) prevented the... Read More »