Ho Chi Minh, Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Viet–Nam


Ho Chi Minh, the revolutionary name of Nguyen That Thanh (1890–1969), was the leader of the Vietnamese revolution for independence from the French. He was educated in France, where he became a communist. He returned home to fight Japanese occupation during World War II and to lead resistance to the French afterward. He denounced the imperialist deformation of revolutionary principles and... Read More »

Iglesia Colonial de Conchagua


The Iglesia Colonial de Conchagua is one of the oldest churches in El Salvador. It stands in the shadows of the town’s namesake feature, the Conchagua volcano. Similar to other towns throughout the former Spanish empire, the church is located at Conchagua’s city center, where the townspeople would have gathered to witness or participate in the major political, economic, social, and religious... Read More »

Drawing shows two people harvesting grain and and one carrying it away in bushels

Illustrations from Guaman Poma, El Primer Nueva Coránica y Buen Gobierno


These two illustrations come from El Primer Nueva Coránica y Buen Gobierno [The First New Chronicle and Good Government] (1615), a history of the Inca Empire and the Spanish conquest of the Andes written and illustrated by Filipe Guaman Poma y Ayala, an indigenous Peruvian Christian noble. The book is written primarily in Spanish, with some Quecha words. Guaman Poma addressed his huge text... Read More »

Imágenes y relatos homepage detail

Imágenes y relatos de un viaje por Colombia

The experience of exploring the manuscript is enriched by an impressive array of visual accompaniments and multimedia resources such as maps, image galleries, infographics, animations, and audios.

Imperialism in North Africa: Autobiography, Fadhma Amrouche


Fadhma Amrouche was the illegitimate daughter of an impoverished, illiterate Berber peasant woman. Born a Muslim, she was converted to Christianity by Catholic missionaries, produced one of the first autobiographies ever written by an Algerian woman, became a naturalized French citizen, and raised two children who became well-known French literati—Taos Marie-Louise Amrouche, a poet and... Read More »

Imperialism in North Africa: Autobiography, Leila Abouzeid


In Morocco, after 1912, the colonial regime eschewed, for the most part, introducing overt changes into Islamic personal status law. Indeed the patriarchy of the reigning dynasty, the ’Alawis, and of the leaders of the great tribes, was reinforced, since France wanted Morocco to theoretically remain “traditional,” untouched by modernity. Nevertheless France’s divide-and-conquer strategy... Read More »

Imperialism in North Africa: Interview, Djamila Bouhired


By the eve of the revolution, Algerian demands for even limited political and civil rights had been repeatedly rebuffed by the French colonial regime and the nearly one million European settlers in the country. The only possible solution was armed conflict, which broke out on All Saints Day, November 1954. Thus began one of Africa’s cruelest anticolonial wars—an immense human tragedy that... Read More »

Imperialism in North Africa: Interview, Tewhida Ben Sheikh


Tewhida Ben Sheikh [1909-2010] was the first North African Muslim woman to earn a medical degree from the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, in 1936, while Tunisia was still under colonial rule. After she was awarded her medical diploma in France, Madame Ben Sheikh returned to Tunis, where she opened a women’s reproductive health clinic, often providing free medical services for poor women. She was... Read More »

Imperialism in North Africa: Law, Code of Personal Status


In 1956 one of the most revolutionary family law codes in the Arab or Islamic world was proclaimed in the newly independent Tunisian state which, paradoxically, had not suffered a political revolution in the way that colonial Algeria would. What historical factors explain why Tunisian women won comparatively more legal and social rights than women in Algeria or Morocco?

While the... Read More »

Imperialism in North Africa: Letters, Lalla Zaynab


In North Africa, Muslim and Jewish women’s quotidian religiosity was expressed in popular observances and festivals preserved chiefly, but not exclusively, in oral traditions. The most visible embodiment of these beliefs and practices were saints’ shrine where women (and men) honored especially pious individuals, who could be either male or female, living or dead. Lalla Zaynab (1850?-1904) was... Read More »