The Soviet Union was a multi-national empire from the revolution of 1917 through the final demise of Communism in 1991. Multi-national in this context meant that all Soviet citizens were defined by nationality, which was a category associated with birth, but also with native language, regional boundaries, and cultural traditions. While Russians always made up the largest single national group... Read More »
The December 1989 revolution in Romania has been the subject of scholarly discussions, passionate debates, conspiracy theories, and political struggles. In 2004, for instance, an Institute for the study of the Romanian Revolution of December 1989 (IRRD) was founded in Bucharest, headed by then President Ion Iliescu whose term in office was soon to expire. The Institute’s publications have... Read More »
Global trade is a central aspect of the contemporary world, but trade was also important in pre-modern eras. The most important trading network in the period from the tenth through the fifteenth centuries was that across Eurasia, both land routes and sea routes, especially those across and around the Indian Ocean. Ships carried merchants and many types of products, and also carried religious... Read More »
This is a detail of a map depicting the Dutch stronghold of Batavia from the Atlas Historique, an expansive Dutch encyclopedia compiled by Henri Abraham Châtelain and first published between 1705 to 1720. Batavia, now present-day Jakarta, was founded in 1619 by the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC) as a trade and administrative center for... Read More »
The original map came from the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Timişoara (Temesvar in Hungarian) in Western Romania was long under Habsburg rule. Like much of Austria-Hungary, the city has been ethnically and religiously diverse. The Banat’s political ties to Romania date only to 1918.
This type of image is known as a map. Represented on this paper is the old, walled city that forms a part of the larger, contemporary city of Khiva, Uzebekistan. This image covers one half of one side of the page of the map. Looking at it closely tells us as much about contemporary material culture as it does about the old city that it represents.
This source is a part of the... Read More »