Portón de Campo


This stone structure, also known as the Puerta de la Ciudadela, belonged to the historic defensive walls of Colonia del Sacramento. Although the city is located in modern-day Uruguay, at the time of construction (1745), it was occupied by the Portuguese under Governor Vasconcellos. During the colonial period, both Spanish and Portuguese forces built these types of structures in their American... Read More »

Portrait of Carlota Ferreira


This painting depicts a controversial figure in the history of Uruguay and Argentina. The subject is Carlota Ferreira, an upper-class woman born in Montevideo in 1838. She appears in fine clothing indicative of her social standing, such as her delicate white gloves and the gold jewelry that adorns her wrists. She was first married to Dr. Emeterio Celedonio Regunaga, the Treasury Minister of... Read More »

Portrait of Francisco López de Solís


This partially damaged painting depicts Francisco López de Solís, who occupied many posts throughout his career. He served as a lawyer for the Fisco del Santo Oficio, a judge on the high court of both the Philippines and Guatemala. Also in Guatemala, López occupied the posts of President, Governor, and Capitan General, Inspector of the Chiapas Province, and Head Teacher at the Metropolitan... Read More »

Portrait of Gaspar Sánchez


This seventeenth century painting depicts the Jesuit theologian Gaspar Sánchez. He was born and educated in Spain, but his published works were distributed throughout the Spanish world. For example, the Jesuit library of Tepotzotlán has multiple volumes. Several aspects of this artwork shed light on the identity of Sánchez. The dark clothing he wears are traditional Jesuit robes, and the... Read More »

Portrait of Hernán Cortés


Hernán Cortés, a central figure in the establishment of Spanish rule in the Americas, is the subject of this painting. Throughout his career, he led several voyages back and forth between Spain, the Carribean, and Mexico. The Spanish Crown awarded him titles of honor for his efforts, including “Capitán General de las tierras conquistadas” and “Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca.” In the top corner of... Read More »

Pound Homestead


This historic homestead was built in the mid-nineteenth century near modern-day Dripping Springs, Texas. It belonged to the family of Joseph M. Pound, a doctor who provided medical services to the local community, including the indigeous peoples (such as the Tonkawa). He had also served in the Confederate army. During this period, Texas was a sparsely-populated frontier region. The home itself... Read More »

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Primary Source: Educating Global Citizens

Such sources are indeed a superb addition to one’s class; unquestionably the materials on the Primary Source site can help enhance any class.
Stellar diagram features a drawing of a ship surrounded by Chinese characters

Primer: Oceans


Oceans, which cover approximately 70 percent of the earth’s surface, have played a crucial role in shaping human history. Using oceans and seas as a unit for analysis is, however, a relatively new framework for historical analysis. The traditional units of historical analysis include civilizations, continents and especially nation-states. The Cold War expanded these units by encouraging... Read More »

Map of the earth showing areas where lights can be seen from space at night

Primer: The History of Globalization


Globalization, defined here as the integration of an interdependent economy that simultaneously enhances cultural exchanges relying on the mobility of people, animals, plants, pathogens, objects, and ideas, is a useful concept for exploring connections across space and time. In this essay, scholar Diego Olstein traces the various ways the chronology of globalization has been understood by... Read More »

Title page of The Voyages and Adventures of Ferdinand Mendez Pinto

Primer: Transnational History


Transnational History encompasses all history that transcends the national level. As a field within the discipline of History, it arose out of dissatisfaction with what was called “methodological nationalism”: the assumption in most historical inquiry that the nation-state is the main building block of history. By contrast, advocates of Transnational History argue that even national questions... Read More »