Part of Plutarch's Moralia, these sayings by Spartan women demonstrate not only the martial culture of Sparta that emphasized physical courage and honor, but also the role of women in reinforcing that culture. Some sayings pertain to the reaction of Spartan mothers to their sons' death in battle while others purport to be the reaction of Spartan women to the cowardice of their sons.... Read More »

Painting shows mounted warriors armed with bow and arrows in combat

Mounted Mongol Warriors


In this watercolor illustration from the Compendium of Chronicles, the enormous hemispheric history by the learned official Rashid al-Din finished around 1310, mounted Mongol warriors shoot bows and arrows while riding, a military tactic perfected by steppe warriors. The soldiers they are chasing are also Mongol dress, so this may represent a conflict between different Mongol groups.... Read More »

1907 photograph of Peck Piano Company workers

Museum of the City of New York: Byron Collection

The Byron photographers took as its subjects all manner of social life in and around New York; the collection includes private subjects (family portraits and home photographs), but the bulk of the collection documents public life and public institutions.
Screenshot of Smithsonian National Museum of African Art homepage

National Museum of African Art

This site showcases an incredible collection of artwork from across the African continent, including more than 1,500 ancient artifacts, pieces collected in the colonial era, photographs, textiles, and works by modern African artists.
Thumbnail of boy posing with bicycle on a city street

New York Public Library Digital Collections

The NYPL Digital Collection provides access to over 755,000 images digitized from primary sources and printed rarities, including illuminated manuscripts, vintage posters, illustrated books, and printed ephemera.
thumbnail of  a Maori men, women, and children arranged for a group portrait on the porch of a whare or wharenui (meeting house) in New Zealand

New Zealand, Maoris at Their Talking House


The photograph shows Maori men, women, and children arranged for a group portrait on the porch of a whare or wharenui (meeting house) in New Zealand. This ceremonial structure, also called a talking house, and the marae (grassy area in front of it) are central to Maori social order and culture. These typical sacred structures are monuments to tribal ancestors and places that bridge past and... Read More »

New York Time's reports on Eva Peron's death in Argentina in 1952

Newspaper report on Eva Peron's Death


Although newspapers are a popular way to locate facts related to a specific event, because they attempt to cover events as they unfold or before they even have all the relevant information, newspapers often include factual errors and always reflect a point of view. Newspaper reports are frequently incomplete, biased, and/or inaccurate. For example, following the death of Argentina's first lady... Read More »

Nuestra Señora de la Bahía del Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga


This church was built as part of the larger project of indigneous evangelization, in which the Spanish Crown sent missionaries along the northern border of its North American possessions to establish churches and convert the natives. The Francsisan friars who governed this mission ministered to individuals of various backgrounds, including Aranama, Piguique, Manos de Perro, Tamique, Tawakoni,... Read More »

Thumbnail image of olmec baby figurine

Olmec Ceramic Baby Figurine


This baby figurine of a pudgy toddler is one of many similar examples of ceramic sculptures of infants belonging to an ancient Mesoamerican ceramic tradition that flourished during the first millennium B.C.E. The figurines are hollow and often nearly life-sized (about 25 to 35 cm, or 10 – 14 inches high), made of white kaolin clay, or ordinary clay covered with white slip. The figurines are... Read More »

On the Murder of Eratosthenes


In this speech, an Athenian man, Euphiletos, defends himself against a murder accusation, claiming that his killing of his wife’s lover was justifiable homicide. The case reveals much about gender in Athens including details about family structure, the presence of “women’s quarters” in the Athenian household, and attitudes toward women with regard to questions of chastity, loyalty, and... Read More »