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Long Teaching Module: Cultural Contact in Southern Africa


The Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Diaz first saw the Cape of Good Hope—the southernmost point in Africa—in 1488. No attempt was made by a European nation to establish a permanent settlement there, however, until 1652, when the Dutch East India Company (VOC) set up a refreshment station. The Cape was approximately midway between Europe and India, which made it an ideal stopping point where... Read More »

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Long Teaching Module: Masculinity and Femininity in the Mongol Empire


This module examines ideals of masculinity and femininity among the Mongols, the Central Asian nomadic pastoralists who in the thirteenth century under their leader Chinggis Khan created the largest land-based empire the world has ever seen. Like all empires, the Mongol Empire was created by military conquest, and men formed the bulk of the fighting force, but women were also important in the... Read More »

Long Teaching Module: Women and Empire


This teaching cluster assembles an array of primary and secondary sources, as well as teaching strategies and lesson plans, for educators to effectively teach the important roles women played in colonial and imperial projects from the 17th century to the 20th century. Surveying how women interacted with imperial landscapes, both as colonizers and as colonized persons, this cluster explores... Read More »

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Long Teaching Module: Women and Stalinism, 1929-1939


The period of Joseph Stalin’s rule over the Soviet Union was significant in 20th century world history because of the distinctive character of the government, the extension of communism into Eastern Europe, and the increasing importance of the Soviet Union as a world power during the Cold War. Stalin’s rule of the Soviet Union began 1928, when, after a long struggle, he succeeded Vladimir... Read More »

Title page of witch hunter manual, Malleus Maleficarum

Long Teaching Module: Women in the Early Modern World, 1500-1800


Talking about an “early modern world” allows us to investigate the interconnectedness of world cultures, as opposed to their isolation. In fact, the period between 1400 and 1800 was characterized by the advent of the Age of Exploration, which made encounters between cultures almost inevitable, even when some areas (most notably, China) turned inwards and shunned international interactions.... Read More »

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Long Teaching Module: Women in the Islamic World, 600-1600


From its inception in the early 7th century up to the present day, women have played a vital role in shaping Islamic history. However, their voices have often been left out of standard historical narratives, silenced by a lack of primary sources as well as an assumed belief by male historians that they were not part of the development of Islamic civilizations. Looking past this bias, scholars... Read More »

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Long Teaching Module: “Reading” Primary Sources on the History of Children & Youth


How do you study the history of young people? What can primary source documents reveal? What limitations do they pose? What light can the history of young people shed on the past? This essay aims to serve as a guide to finding, interpreting or “reading” primary sources on young people from ancient civilizations to the present.

Louis Leaves His Family


What links the many scenes we have of the King and his family is the modern sensibility on display in all of them. Of course, since dates are uncertain, we must assume that several images hail from the nineteenth century. Yet all confirm the sentimentality that the twentieth century so embraces. Interestingly, this may have been quite accurate, even though this sentimentality had not been as... Read More »

Louis XVI and His Family (20 January 1793)


Not shown in this or other scenes here is the fact that between the King’s two visits he ate a last meal. At this time he was denied, as was custom, a knife to avoid suicide. Louis was angered that his jailers thought he was so sinful as to take his own life.

Maguire Residence


This mansion is one of the last remaining palace-like residences in Buenos Aires. It was built in the 1890s on a street with many other similar homes, Avenida Alvear. Many of these extravagant houses have been demolished or converted into hotels. Its architectural features combine Victorian, Gothic, and Renaissance influences as a reflection of the tastes of its former inhabitants, the Duhau... Read More »