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Taranaki Education Office Report, 1898


A state-funded, secular elementary education system was established in the colony of New Zealand in 1870, but the compulsory attendance provisions for 7 to 13-year-olds were not rigorously enforced, for Maori and Pakeha children alike, until the first decade of the 20th century. By then, complementary legislation, such as laws governing the minimum age for employment in factories and shops,... Read More »

Teaching East Asia Online Curriculum Projects

The lessons provided are insightful explorations of Japanese history that strike a balance between academic rigour, accessibility, and being able to draw student attention, making them a valuable addition to any world history teacher’s toolkit.
thumbnail of the teaching of the traditional Polynesian navigation

Teaching Traditional Polynesian Navigation


On the Micronesian island of Satawal, north of Papua New Guinea (about 2000 miles east of the island group of Hawaii), children sit on a canoe watching a ceremony related to the heritage of traditional navigation. The children are witnesses to a Pwo ceremony—the first held in over 50 years—inducting master navigators into a select group of Micronesians. Five Polynesians, including several... Read More »

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Terakoya vs. Meiji School


Contrary to impression left by document #2, schools for commoners were plentiful prior to the Meiji Restoration in 1868. These schools are usually known by the term terakoya, which literally means "temple school." The first image is of one such terakoya, depicted here in an 18th-century woodblock print. The second image is of a Meiji-era elementary school classroom, found in... Read More »

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Thanksgiving Newspaper Article


Thanksgiving was not uniformly celebrated until major efforts to nationalize it were undertaken late in the nineteenth century. Despite Lincoln's proclamation that made Thanksgiving a national holiday during the Civil War, few Americans celebrated the holiday like middle-class Protestants in New England and the Mid-Atlantic states did. Southerners refused to recognize the "Yankee holiday,"... Read More »

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The Book of Rites, Early Education and Gender Differentiation


In early China, aristocratic boys are said to have studied the Asix arts. Specifically, this referred to ritual, archery, charioteering, music, writing, and mathematics, all skills associated with government, warfare, and religious and court ritual. Education for girls consisted of training in the ritual duties assigned to women and in domestic work such as spinning, weaving, and sewing and... Read More »

The Cathedral of Buenos Aires


The Catedral Metropolitana de Buenos Aires is the principal Catholic church in the capital city of Argentina. Although construction began around 1580, the church underwent a long building process, with expansions and repairs occurring over the next three-hundred years. It was built by the Spanish colonial government in the main town square, today called the Plaza de mayo. The current structure... Read More »

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The Imperial Rescript on Education


During the first two decades of the Meiji era, the new government invested a great deal of effort into building the institutions of the modern Japanese state. By the 1880s, officials and other commentators had begun in earnest to articulate the moral foundations that should undergird those institutions and unify the Japanese people. The following document is one of the most famous and... Read More »

Logo of the International Children's Digital Library abstractly showing an open book with a children running across the cover

The International Children's Digital Library

The International Children's Digital Library is a feast for children who are bookworms. It is also a treasure trove for teachers of reading, literature, science, social studies, and world cultures or geography. Scholarly researchers will find in its global collection a wealth of material for comparison, thematic exploration, historical studies of childhood and reading, and interdisciplinary studies of all kinds.
The Phoenix Indian School

The Phoenix Indian School, 1896


"Phoenix Indian School; Largest in the Southwest and Second Largest in the Country: Need of Military Garrisons in Arizona Grow Less as this School increases Its Influence Among the Nation's Wards -- Over One Hundred and Fifty Boys and Girls," read the headline of the New York Times article written by a journalist after a visit to the school on July 5, 1896. The Phoenix Indian School was one of... Read More »