Gold coin engraved with a man holding a scepter

Gold dinar depicting Caliph Abd al-Malik


Coins are objects that can help historians see change over time. This Dinar coined in 695 likely depicts Abd al-Malik ibn the caliph or leader of the Umayyad Caliphate. Several aspects of the coin make it an interesting object for study. For one, the coin's design was likely influenced by coins like this one produced by... Read More »

Gorbachev discusses De-Militarization


In the midst of a chaotic year of economic and political reforms, Communist Party General Secretary (and head of state) Mikhail Gorbachev addressed the politburo on the delicate issue of the Soviet military presence throughout Europe. Conventional Soviet military thinking was that any troop buildup by NATO countries must be met by tit-for-tat by the Warsaw Pact countries; to act otherwise was... Read More »

Gorbachev Discusses the Impact of Western Goods in the Eastern Bloc


At a March 10, 1988, Politburo meeting, Mikhail Gorbachev (leader of the Soviet Union) delineated his concerns about the growing influence of Western goods on Eastern bloc countries. He recognized that there existed minimal economic trade within Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, and indicated the importance of rebuilding trade within COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) to... Read More »

Photograph of five men standing

Hangzhou elites in 1935


The image shows an eclectic group of elites in Hangzhou in 1935, including Shanghainese gangster-businessmen Du Yuesheng and Zhang Xiaolin, Peking Opera star Mei Lanfang, Mayor of Hangzhou Zhou Xiangxian, and Japanese Consul at Hangzhou Yuzo Matsumura. Mei, Du, and Zhang were visiting Hangzhou to gather and donate funds for flood and poverty relief in the region. Though based in Shanghai, Du... Read More »

Thumbnail image of Hanover Historical Texts homepage

Hanover Historical Texts Project

The project has taken a selection of more than 115 primary texts in the public domain, in English or translated into English, and made them available to anyone with Internet access.
Image of two women making a dress on a dummy

Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History (HEARTH)

Materials are arranged into 11 broadly-defined topics; each is introduced with a short essay, an image, and a substantial bibliography of influential texts on that topic, in PDF format. The history of home economics is a relatively young discipline, so these bibliographies provide an especially valuable service.

How a Mother Survives


Madame Ducroquet wrote to her son in the spring of 1794 about the continuing shortage of food. She expressed her worries upon reading that someone with the same name had been arrested; in fact, it was her son, who went to the guillotine only a few weeks later.

Hungary's Prime Minister discusses the Future


As part of a public demonstration of support for the newly-elected governments in Eastern Europe, the United Kingdom's Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, traveled throughout the region in September 1990. Not only did this provide her an opportunity to discuss important matters for Britain's foreign policy but also she could use the attention she brought with Western journalists to allow the... Read More »

Photo of young girl with a bow in her hair.

In Motion: The African-American Migration Project

In Motion: The African-American Migration Project portrays the history of 13 defining migrations that formed and transformed African Americans from the 16th century to the present.
Screenshot of the site's map feature showing the Indian Ocean in the Industrial and Imperial era with markers for different objects, goods, and places highlighted on the site

Indian Ocean History

It is easily the most comprehensive website for studying and teaching Indian Ocean history currently available.