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Benjamín Montes with Bourgan, Funge, and Company

Source

Since 1810, social critics in Buenos Aires had long been concerned about young people from the lower classes—especially young men—exercising greater independence within the home. With the decline of parental authority, they were alarmed at the sight of growing numbers of young people as a potential source of disorder, and they looked to the state for solutions. As a result, the police were... Read More »

Beware the Wealthy Bourgeoisie

Source

The term "bourgeoisie" had many meanings in eighteenth–century France, from the most literal sense of "citizens of a city" to a more sociological meaning of talented and cultivated members of the Third Estate. Some eighteenth–century writers also used the term to refer to merchants. However, it did not yet connote upper–middle–class status or adherence to certain dominant social norms, as the... Read More »

Poster for a play called 'Battle Hymn', depicting the red outline of abolitionist John Brown and a blue flag

Beyond the Bubble

Review
Beyond the Bubble is a fantastic initiative that provides educators with an array of thoughtful and easily implementable history assessments.

Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (Hispanic Digital Library)

Review
...the Biblioteca Digital Hispánica is a well-organized, highly searchable, and remarkable platform for a wide audience, including instructors, students, researchers, and the general public. Historians interested in Spain’s cross-cultural encounters in Europe, Asia, and the Americas will particularly benefit from this resource.

Brazilian Carriage

Source

This horse-drawn carriage dates from the late-eighteenth or early nineteenth century. During this period, carriages like this were the preferred form of transportation for elite members of society. It protected them from inclement weather and created a spectacle among the rest of the townspeople who saw them ride by. To reflect their high social position, the individuals who rode in carriages... Read More »

Historical map of the British Isles from British History Online

British History Online

Review
This site is a digital library containing more than 800 printed primary and secondary sources—including maps, personal journals and diaries, official and political documents, and quantitative evidence—for the history of The British Isles from the 16th to the early 19th Century.

Cahiers from Rural Districts: Attack on Seigneurial Dues

Source

The petitions from rural communities decried the abuse of seigneurial dues that peasants owed to lords in exchange for which they were supposed to receive protection and supervision. But by 1789, on the verge of the French Revolution, these excerpts demonstrate how peasants had come to see their lords not as protectors, but as creditors, constantly turning the screws on them for ever more rent... Read More »

Calonne, "Programs of Reform," Address to Assembly of Notables (1787)

Source

In 1783, Charles Alexandre de Calonne, a provincial noble, became royal finance minister. At first, he, like Vergennes, saw no need to rationalize the royal treasury or to appease the Parlements. However, by 1786 the deficit had become so huge—one–sixth of the total royal budget—that Calonne knew reforms (meaning more taxes or at least more loans) could no longer be put off. To obtain the... Read More »

Thumbnail of a photo of women working in a factoryThere is also a great deal of material on the foundation of female education and on the women’s suffrage movement.

Canadian Women's History

Review
There is also a great deal of material on the foundation of female education and on the women’s suffrage movement.
Thumbnail of landscape painting with a road bordered by palm trees, mountains in the distance

Caribbean Views

Review
The online collection is of extraordinary quality, both in terms of the scanned images and the contextual detail provided.

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