Price Increases in Eastern Europe with Special Regard to Hungary


One of the most significant differences between the functioning of the East European Communist economies and the mixed-market economies of the West was the way in which prices for goods and services were determined. In a mixed-market economy, prices are determined by a combination of government regulation (especially taxes) and consumer demand. In the Communist states, central government... Read More »

Map of the world with colors indicating the level of judicial independence in each state's constitution.

Primer: Comparative History


Comparison is used in many different ways in world history, both implicitly and explicitly. Explicit types of comparison used by historians today include “entangled comparisons,” which compare pairs in which the similarities might come from interaction with each other; “encompassing comparison,” in which the pair may not interact with each other directly, but are both parts of some larger... Read More »

Gold sculpture of a bird with it's head turned backwards

Primer: Technology


Technology, broadly defined, denotes not only transformative innovations but the whole spectrum of tools, skills and artifacts with which human societies construct their worlds. The impact of technology is symbolic and social as well as material: artifacts have meaning; ways of making and doing embody beliefs and values, identities and relationships. Viewed as a nexus of material, cultural and... Read More »

Map of the earth showing areas where lights can be seen from space at night

Primer: The History of Globalization


Globalization, defined here as the integration of an interdependent economy that simultaneously enhances cultural exchanges relying on the mobility of people, animals, plants, pathogens, objects, and ideas, is a useful concept for exploring connections across space and time. In this essay, scholar Diego Olstein traces the various ways the chronology of globalization has been understood by... Read More »

Proclamation of the Department of the Seine–et–Oise (9 March 1792)


Despite the radical measures taken by the National Assembly, such as the abolition of nobility and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, social conflicts continued to manifest themselves after the National Assembly completed its work in 1791. In the document below, we see evidence of continued friction over the circulation of grain and bread. Peasants continued to believe they were not getting... Read More »

Protests of the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Committees of the Assembly of Notables (1787)


To consider Calonne’s proposed reforms, the Assembly of Notables broke up into committees, each of which issued a report. In these reports, the Notables expressed general agreement with some reform proposals, including the idea of regional, representative assemblies. However, as we see below, various committees of the Assembly of Notables—composed almost entirely of provincial nobles and... Read More »

1940 census

Puerto Rican Labor Movement and the 1940 Census


This particular census table describes the types of jobs done by men and women. It illustrates how roles are assigned on a gendered basis. After the Great Depression of 1929, the world economy was in crisis. The United States promoted agriculture to improve the economy and the lives of its citizens. Puerto Rico, as part of the insular possession of the United States, was included in this plan... Read More »

Inset of Puerto Rice from a map of the Spanish American War in 1898

Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age

This site commemorates the Spanish-American War of 1898 that ended Spanish colonial rule in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines, and began U.S. control of these areas.
A Mohur-Akbar coil from the Mughal Empire

RBI Monetary Museum Galleries

The wide selection of currencies and time periods make this useful for classroom instruction and for generating discussion.

Remains of Christopher Colombus


In October of 1492, the Spanish monarchs sponsored a voyage led by Columbus and his crew, who intended to sail towards India. Instead, they set foot in the Americas for the first time. Over the next several years, Columbus made many trips back and forth between Spain and the Caribbean Islands. His efforts established the foundation for Spanish colonial rule, which ultimately endured for more... Read More »