Gustave Le Bon

Le Bon, The Psychology of Revolution


Gustave Le Bon (1841–1931) disparaged the Revolution and the revolutionary legacy because he distrusted the common person, particularly when making collective decisions. His analysis of revolutionary crowds pictured them as primitive animals devoid of good decision–making abilities who had to be reigned in by a "strong man" or dictatorial figure.

This source is a part of the... Read More »

Legislation and Public Police Powers (1753)


Louis–Adrien Le Paige was the leading theoretician of Parlementary claims against the crown in the 1750s. His Historical Letters on the Essential Functions of the Parlement (1753) traced the history of the parlements from what he claimed to be their medieval origins—assemblies held by Frankish warriors to elect kings. Criticizing what he perceived to be the inadequate attention being paid by... Read More »

Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky, The Permanent Revolution


Leon Trotsky (1879–1940), whose original name was Lev Davidovich Bronstein, was one of the chief figures in the Russian Revolution of 1917. After years spent in exile agitating in favor of Russian communism, he put his ideas into practice as one of the leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution. After falling out with Stalin, he was expelled from the Russian Communist Party in 1927 and forced into... Read More »

Linguet, "Attack on the Nobility" from Annales politiques (1789)


Simon–Henri Linguet was one of the most active and irascible old regime figures. Among his many careers, he was a lawyer (who was disbarred in 1775) and a journalist (who was forced to give up his newspaper and flee to England in 1776). Throughout his life, he remained both a resolute monarchist and an intemperate critic of the excesses of royal ministers, Parlementary magistrates, lawyers—... Read More »

Black text reading Livingstone Online in large font, followed by the subheading illuminating imperial exploration. The background is a litograph of a steamboat on a river.

Livingstone Online

While the site is primarily dedicated to digitising the famed British explorer’s works, Livingstone Online is far more than a mere repository of primary sources.
Image of a bird formed from blue, green, and red beads.

Logan Museum of Anthropology

With almost 5000 items digitised at the moment and more to come in the near future, this will definitely be a useful site to keep an eye on.
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Long Teaching Module: Children in Late Imperial China, 900-1930


An exploration of primary sources on childhood in late imperial China (framed broadly as the Song through Qing dynasties, ca. 960-1911 CE) offers a window into lived experience and the diverse ways in which childhood itself could be imagined and articulated. As with other times and places, the historical record presents a variety of perspectives and different takes on childhood, providing a... Read More »

Long Teaching Module: Economies in Transition in Eastern Europe, 1970-1990


It is well known that the East European Communist governments were unable to provide their citizens with a standard of living comparable to that of the West. This fact is often held up by scholars as an important underlying cause of the widespread discontent with Communism that swept through the region in the late 1980s.

This long teaching module includes an informational essay,... Read More »

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Long Teaching Module: Sexuality, Marriage, and Age of Consent Laws, 1700-2000


In western law, the age of consent is the age at which an individual is treated as capable of consenting to sexual activity. Consequently, any one who has sex with an underage individual, regardless of the circumstances, is guilty of a crime. Narrowly concerned with sexual violence, and with girls, originally, since the 19th century the age of consent has occupied a central place in debates... Read More »

Long Teaching Module: The Romanian Revolution of 1989


The December 1989 revolution in Romania has been the subject of scholarly discussions, passionate debates, conspiracy theories, and political struggles. In 2004, for instance, an Institute for the study of the Romanian Revolution of December 1989 (IRRD) was founded in Bucharest, headed by then President Ion Iliescu whose term in office was soon to expire. The Institute’s publications have... Read More »