Stone tablet from Gilgamesh's Epic.  The specific tablet is number 11 discussing the Flood Narrative.

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook

This site was designed to provide classroom teachers with an extensive, well-organized collection of ancient Mediterranean literary texts and, to a lesser extent, art and archaeological sources.

Is Poland Lost?


These brief excerpts from a longer report by the environmental organization Greenpeace highlight the ecological collapse that was taking place all across Eastern Europe by the early 1980s. As extreme as the Polish case sounds, it was unfortunately typical rather than exceptional. All across the region, life expectancies were dropping rapidly, especially for men who were exposed to industrial... Read More »

Black and white cat hissing on a gabled rooftop. This is a detail from Japanese printmaker Kōno Bairei.

Japanese Illustrated Books from the Edo and Meiji Periods

Spanning over three hundred years of Japanese book history, the collection includes famous Edo period (1603-1868) artists such as Andō Hiroshige (1797-1858) and Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849).
Detail of "The Priest Saigyo" a painting of an older man in a flowing black robe underneath Japanese text

Japanese Text Initiative

Perhaps the greatest contribution of this site is its search engine, which enables the reader to search multiple texts, in English, for common topics or phrases. This feature makes these literary texts very useful to historians locating references on specific topics.

Jean–Jacques Rousseau, Emile (1762)


Rousseau was the most controversial and paradoxical of the writers of the Enlightenment. Born in Switzerland, he published important works on politics, music, and in Emile, education. He also wrote one of the most widely read novels of the century, Julie or the New Heloise. Although an advocate of new educational practices that emphasized the natural development of children’s abilities,... Read More »

Thumbnail photo of a woman speaking with a banner in the background

Jewish Women's Archive

The Jewish Women’s Archive (JWA), a national non-profit organization, seeks to collect and promote the 'extraordinary stories of Jewish women.'

John Locke, "Of Political or Civil Society"


John Locke (1632–1704) wrote his Second Treatise of Government early in the 1680s and published it in 1690. In it Locke proposed a social contract theory of government and argued against the idea of "divine right," which held that rulers had a legitimate claim on their office because they were God’s emissaries on earth. Locke believed that government derived from an agreement between men to... Read More »

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill on the French Revolution


John Stuart Mill (1806–73), an English civil servant and philosopher, was a firm believer in the liberal, democratic, and anti–absolutist elements of the legacy of the Revolution and hoped to extend these concepts as widely as possible. Most famous for On Liberty (1859) and The Subjection of Women (1869), Mill was profoundly influenced by the French Revolution.

This... Read More »

Immanuel Kant

Kant, The Contest of Faculties


The most influential German philosopher of the eighteenth century, Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), set the foundations for much of modern philosophy. He lectured on a wide variety of topics, from astronomy to economics. In this short statement from 1798, he captures much of the significance of the French Revolution for his time.

This source is a part of the... Read More »

Karl Marx

Karl Marx: The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte


The German philosopher and founder of international communism, Karl Marx (1818–83), wrote on many occasions about the French Revolution, which he considered the first stage in an eventual worldwide proletarian revolution. In this relatively early work from 1852, Marx compares the French Revolution of 1789 with that of 1848. Marx considered the French Revolution the classic example of the "... Read More »